Category Archives: 13. Electrical

Spark plug caps and suppressors for Jaguar XK’s


From 1934 onwards Jaguar used Champion spark plugs for their pre-war (SS) engines. This may also have influenced them to source spark plug caps (or HT cable terminals) from Champion after the war.

 Champion add 1951 Advertisement 1951, mentiones Jaguar

History of Champion in UK

Champion started it spark plug activities in 1908 in Boston, USA and then moved to Toledo, Ohio, USA in 1910. In 1920 Champion moved across the Atlantic and established the Champion Sparking Plug Company Ltd. in England with their offices at 83, Pall Mall, London. Their UK industrial facilities were at Hatton Cross, Feltham, Middlesex (near London) and stayed there until it had to move due to the extension of Heathrow Airport in 1968. Thereafter the Champion Spark Plug Company operated an automotive components factory on Arrowe Brook Road, Upton near Liverpool employing at one time over 1,000 people. It was closed in 2006 and the production was transferred to Italy.

Early spark plug terminals: Jaguar C404

Pre-war and first post-war models like the Jaguar MK IV and MK V used an uninsulated horizontally positioned terminal made of tempered (tinned) brass (Jaguar part number C404), which was secured by a nut on the threaded end of the spark plug. The manufacturer of these terminals is unknown.

KONICA MINOLTA DIGITAL CAMERA Early spark plug terminal C404    (Courtesy Rob Reilly) 
Lucas terminal 189253 Lucas HT terminal end 189253

Lucas HT terminal end 189253 for 7 mm cable seems identical to Jaguar C404 and we may conclude that these were supplied by Lucas.

Note that all XK engines as used for the XK120, 140 and 150 had “straight” spark plug caps, apart perhaps from some early (experimental) engines that had horizontal connections for the HT wires.

Jaguar C1575: uninsulated straight terminal

The early Jaguar XK 120 (up to engine number W6372; late October 1952) had a spark plug terminal Jaguar part number C1575, which is in fact an uninsulated straight metal sleeve connected to the HT wire. This method of fastening the HT cable to the spark plug terminal is different from all later systems: the copper core of the HT cable was mechanically connected to the brass sleeve that fits over the spark plug end.

 C1575 uninsulated straight terminal
Straight plug uninsulated Example of an uninsulated straight spark plug terminal

Up to November 1952 XK 120’s had a distributor cap (Lucas 415708) with horizontal cable outlets: the HT leads entered through holes on the side and had a screw on the inside that fastens down on the leads. So the early HT cables had a metal sleeve at one end and nothing at the other end.

Distributor cap XK120 horizontal Lucas 415708 for early XK 120

Jaguar C5479: Champion HTC cap

From late October 1952 onwards the XK120 received a spark plug cap made by (or made for) Champion. Jaguar changed over to an insulated (Bakelite) spark plug cap type replacing the bare metal C1575. The original early version (that we know now as the Champion HTC type) had tiny embossed letters on the rim in the middle: “Champion Made in England”. They have an internal, fixed screw tip and are screwed into the centre core of the HT wire ends.

Original HTC  Text “Champion  Made in England”

This Champion plug cap was used on the later XK120, XK140 and XK150, unless a suppressor plug cap was required (see hereafter).

Distributor cap XK120 vertical  Lucas 407043 for later XK 120

About the same moment the fastening system with “moulded nut and split-washer” for the HT wires to the distributor cap was introduced (late November 1952) when the XK changed over to a distributor cap with vertical entry (Lucas 407043) and a different routing for the HT cables. So both ends of the HT cable got new “terminals”.

Later Champion HTC 2 plug caps (replacement for original)

 Comparison original and HTC2 Difference between original and new HTC 2

A new HTC version was introduced in the 70’s. These are slightly larger in diameter, have a wider knurled ring and the embossing (Made in England) has been replaced by an initially grey and later red printed paper ring with two times “Champion” on it. Apart from the missing embossing, the newer versions can be easily recognised as the black housing has less taper at the plug end, whereas the other end has almost no taper at all. Both are of the same length but the pin that screws into the HT Cable core protrudes further in case of the newer versions (see photo above).

As mentioned above, there are two  basic productcversions: the original and the replacement version. The latter can be divided in the initial “Grey ring” version followed by the “Red ring” version. The difference is also shown in the boxes that belong to two later replacement versions:

CHampion Grey ring HTC box  Champion HTC grey in box“Grey paper ring” box with description “REF. HTC” or “Part No. HTC”

Early versions had a Grey paper ring and can be recognized by the “slotted” screw for connecting the cable core, that can be seen on the inside of the metal part that snaps over the spark plug.  Note the text on the box “spark plug high tension connectors Ref. HTC”. We may conclude from this that the early “grey ring” version was still called HTC instead of HTC2.

Original HTC box 1 Original HTC box 2 Box for later “Red paper ring” versions with model number “HTC”
 Champion HTC2 red ring Blister with “HTC-2” spark plug caps

Note that the “Red paper ring” version is not named HTC-2 on the box. These later Red paper ring versions can be recognized by the “crosshead” screw on the inside of the metal part that snaps over the spark plug.

Alternative Champion HTC cap with fixing screw

Another Champion “HTC cap type” that occasionally comes for sale, has a fixed, internal brass piece into which the exposed lead wire end is fitted and then held in place with a set screw. This version was applied by BMC (part number AEC 388). The mould used for the Bakelite housing is apparently the same as for the initial HTC cap as the embossing (Made in England) is identical.

Champion early with screw  Original HTC with screw HTC with screw

As far as we know this version was never used by Jaguar.

Jaguar C.8306 Lucas 78113A spark plug suppressor cap

With the arrival of TV in the early 1950’s in the UK (and elsewhere of course) the need for a “suppressor” version arose.  Initially the Lucas type WS5 spark plug cap could be installed as “optional” and wasn’t applied as the “standard” plug cap.

Service Bulletin SB131 (dated August 1953) however had the following information: Note that all Home Market and Home leave cars are now fitted with ignition suppressors. So we may conclude from this that the majority of the exported cars still had the Champion HTC spark plug cap installed.

The 1960 XK150 SPC clearly states that the C.8306 spark plug suppressor cap was now installed on all Export versions. The exact implementation date is as yet unknown, but probably in the period 1957 – 1959.

 Lucas plug cap suppressor                 Suppressor Lucas 78113A version 2           Suppressor Lucas 78113A (photo: Roger Payne)     Lucas 78113A has resistance of about 18 kΩ
   Lucas suppressor 78113A in original box                     Two versions of 78113A with text 180 degree rotated

The resistance of this Lucas suppressor is about 18 kΩ. The HT lead connection is similar to the distributor cap installation with “moulded nut and split washer”. Note that there are two different versions of this suppressor whereby the text has been rotated 180 degrees. The part number itself did not change. The photo above left is identical to the bottom version on the photo right and is probably the first generation: the font is smaller and it smells like “Bakelite”.

For older cars with an uninsulated brass terminal secured by a nut on the threaded end of the spark plug, Lucas introduced a special suppressor 78107A . After the existing nut has been removed, this suppressor is positioned on the spark plug (either horizontally or vertically) and the nut is placed back. The brass terminal of the plug cable is attached to the other end of the suppressor.

 Lucas suppressor 78107A for earlier cars

Other types of suppressors

As mentioned above, most XK’s left the factory with Champion plug caps without suppressor. The XK120 Spare Parts Catalogue, however, refers to Suppressor C8046 installed on the Distributor Cap of all Home Market XK120s in addition to the Plug Suppressors C8306. Reference is made of Suppressor C8046 (Lucas 78114A) described as an alternative solution for the Lucas 78113A spark plug suppressor cap . This single suppressor, with a resistance of about 10 to 15 k Ω, is positioned in the centre connection of the distributor cap. In this way the spark from the coil is suppressed before it enters the distributor cap. A warning is given not to install this suppressor in the connector of the ignition coil: “If fitted to the coil (instead of the distributor cap) there will be a ¼”gap causing ignition failures”

A second version of this distributor cap mounted suppressor is Lucas 78120A which is identical to Lucas 78114A however with a lower resistance of 6.3 k Ω.

Lucas suppressor 78114 Suppressor C8046 for centre contact distributor cap.

Identical cap-mounted suppressors (but also many other suppressor types) have been manufactured by Erie Resistor Ltd of Great Yarmounth (UK). The Erie D8 is an exact copy of the Lucas 78120A suppressor which may lead to the conclusion that Erie actually manufactured these for Lucas.

IMG_0347 Lucas 78120A with identical Erie D8 (with nut) above

There were a number of other companies supplying the same suppressor, like Durite and SIRAN. Durite was a British manufacturer of automotive electrical equipment.  SIRAN Accessories was a 1960’s British company based in Hove, known for its car instruments and switches. Resistance values are unknown.

           Suppressor supplied by Durite                                         Same suppressor now branded SIRAN

Another version was the “cable type of suppressor” as e.g. Lucas 78105A. This type is normally placed in the cable from HT Coil to Distributor cap and is screwed in the copper core of the HT lead. But it is sometimes used in every spark plug lead.

               Lucas cable type suppressor 78105A

The Erie Resistor Lid. also provided a cable suppressor (probabale code number WAD.1738) with 5000 Ω resistance. An example is shown  below with a suppressor in all 6 HT leads.

 Erie Cable type suppressor of 5 kΩ

In May 1957 Jaguar Saloons received a new DMBZ distributor with a distributor cap with “built-in suppressor”. Reference is made of Service Bulletin No. 212 of May 1957 which states: ” Note that the DMBZ type of distributor fitted to the above models incorporates an inbuilt suppressor. The suppressor normally fitted in the centre terminal post of the distributor is therefore unnecessary and must not be fitted.” The centre terminal post suppressor as refered to is the above described Lucas 78114A (or Lucas 78120A version).

Lucas Le Mans 24 headlamps on XK’s


Although the export share of British sports cars going to the USA was much bigger than those heading for continental Europe, Lucas acknowledged in the early 50’s the necessity to come with an improved, highly efficient light unit for (fast) driving on the (European) continent. Lucas opted for “vertical dipping” making use of British Pre Focus (BPF) bulbs.

Lucas LeMans Headlamp LeMans Script

Given the formidable British racing successes in Le Mans, the PR department of Lucas decided that this headlamp series would be called “Le Mans 24”. Although some sources indicate that these head lamps had been specially developed by Lucas for racing at Le Mans, this is factually incorrect. The assignment for the Lucas development group was much more complicated because Lucas management wanted a very efficient head lamp system that could fulfil the legal requirements for road use in different (continental) European countries and that could be formally approved for those countries. Remember this was far before any form of European cooperation and legal requirements differed per country, often based on national laws that had been developed per country in “splendid isolation”.

The legal requirements for headlamps in the USA were totally different (and partially still are today): the “Le Mans 24” lamp was never intended to become an alternative for the USA. We will not enter here into a formal comparison of the legal requirements for the various continents and countries.  We will however emphasis the requirements in some European countries that later formally approved the “Le Mans 24” headlamps, often in combination with the initial type approval of a car for that particular country.

Headlamp Le Mans Lucas “Le Mans 24” for XK 140

Jaguar was a technological forerunner in general and the first company to introduce the “Lucas Le Mans 24” on a production car, destined for Continental Europe: the Jaguar Mk VII carried the Le Mans 24 headlamp unit with Lucas type number 51472A and 51478A from 1952 onwards.

Vertical dipping

Traditionally European manufacturers created a main and dipped beam from a single bulb by introducing two filaments along the axis of the (parabolic) reflector. The high beam filament is always in the focal point of the reflector whereas the dipped beam filament is somewhat “out of focus”: in most cases  about 10 mm to the front and 3 mm above the axis. European (continental, thus excluding Great Britain) legal requirements include a sharp cut-off beam pattern which is normally secured by a (cup-shaped) shield below the dipped beam filament which  prevents that light would be reflected above the horizon. The bulb has a fixed position in the headlamp securing that the shield is always in the correct place below the filament. There are also other versions than vertical dipping available like RH and LH dipping, but they will not be discussed here.

Also note that in 1956 most continental European countries (again excluding GB) agreed to a new beam pattern in which the beam at the RH (or “passenger side”) of the light unit has been lifted 15 degrees: the typical arrangement that later became the EU standard and basically is still valid today. The Lucas “Le Mans 24” light unit does not fulfil this 1956 standard as its beam pattern  has a (very sharp) cut-off over the entire width of the beam. Fortunately in most EU countries the legal requirements have been made in such a way that headlamp requirements contain a mandatory element for the sharp cut-off aspects, with the later (1956) addition that if there is a 15 degree lifted part in the beam, this has to fulfil a number of specific requirements. This implies that in most EU countries that had the sharp cut-off dipped beam pattern standardized before 1956, the “Le Mans 24” light unit would/should be accepted when offered for initial type approval or periodical testing.

Different types of Le Mans 24 light units

The most common version of the Le Mans 24 light unit is Lucas part number 554665 for use with BPF bulbs with lamp base P22d36.

Lucas BPF 370 This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is Marchall-Granilux-288-bulb.jpg
 Lucas BPF bulb 350 and 370 with base P22d36            French 3 pin bulb with base BA21d branded Marchall 

France was a completely different case with their legal requirement of April 1937 to have yellow headlights in combination with a 3 pin lamp with base BA21d. This was a 36/45W bulb with a 40 mm globe-shaped yellow glass envelope. This bulb type was not manufactured by Lucas (nor by their UK bulb suppliers). Instead Lucas offered an adaptor/bulb holder Lucas part number 562303 to accept BA21d bulbs.

 Lucas bulb adaptor 562303  Lucas bulb adaptor 552943 France
Lucas bulb holder for BA21d                         Lucas “Shell Adaptor” with bulbholder positioned

From about 1954 Lucas offered a 3 pin BA21d version of the “Le Mans 24” light unit  intended for France.  The first introduced version was a light unit with Lucas part number 554615. This has not been used by Jaguar (but Aston Martin and Bristol did use this version for Export to France in 1954). This first light unit was succeeded by a second version Lucas part number 555288 which was used by Jaguar for Export to France.

Both the 554615 and 555288 light unit have a larger opening at the back of the reflector (over 40 mm in diameter because of the 40 mm globe-shaped  glass of the French bulb)  whereas the BPF has an opening of about 22 mm. This French system uses a “Shell adaptor” (Lucas 552943) which is a ring to close the gap between the larger reflector opening and the smaller outer diameter of Lucas bulb holder 562303. The Shell adaptor 552943 was delivered complete with Bulb holder 562303 (as in the above picture).

Le Mans 24 Lucas 555288 Lucas PF700EF light unit; part number 554288

The French Bulb holder and Shell adaptor combination also had to compensate the lamp centre length difference of the BPF and the 3 pin BA21d bulbs  (LCL: distance from centre of filament to bulb base).

Survey of “Le Mans 24” light units

So resuming we have three different light units, all branded “Le Mans 24”:

  • Lucas part number 554615 using 3 pin BA21d bulb for France

This is a special reflector unit with a different mounting of the bulb (adaptor) using two clips (in stead of the bajonet fitting of the other Le mans 24 reflector units). The front glass had a special mark reading “Agréée AB-TP No 457” placed in a dashed rectangle. This is a French homologation mark for approved headlights fulfilling the French requirements as laid down in 1930. The bulb was not provided by Lucas but had to be placed by the Jaguar agent in France (see hereafter).

Le Mans 24 France bulb adaptor and reflector  This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is Le-Mans-24-for-France-1024x972.jpg
Back of light unit 254615                               Lucas Le Mans 24 unit for France with homologation mark
  • Lucas part number 554665 using BPF bulb for Europe (excl. GB and France)                       

This unit is closely related to the PF700 versions for the British Pre Focus bulbs and also used the same bulb holder, basically Lucas Bulb holder 556402 with suitable wiring (as assembly:  Lucas 858543).

Headlamp Le Mans rear Back of “Le Mans 24” reflector Lucas 554665
  • Lucas part number 555288 using 3 pin BA21d bulb for France                                                 

This light unit is related to the Lucas J-700 unit (with different lens of course), using the same bulb holder Lucas 554855 and Shell adaptor 554909.

Le Mans 24 Lucas 555288 Back of “Le Mans 24” reflector Lucas 555288

All these light units share the same glass front lens with part number Lucas 554 359 moulded in the glass in a vertical direction just to the right the centre prisms.

Lucas Le Mans glass lens Part number for front lens moulded in glass

Manufacturing over the years

Initial production started probably somewhere in 1953 and continued until mid 1960’s. Light units from the initial production can be recognized by the fact that the factory identification is shown in the form of the letters M5 at the bottom of the lens and the NL mark in a circle etched just below the centre. The factory indication (M5) was followed by a date code consisting of one or two letters. I’ve found the following codes on my Le Mans 24 light units: M5 X, M5 AA, M5 CD. Other sources also indicate M5 XX as a date code.

Lucas Le Mans NL and M5 Original 50’s and 60’s production

Lucas remanufactured the “Le Mans 24” headlamps around 1976, however without the text “700 HEADLAMP”, the factory indication (M5) and the NL mark. We will later see why the NL mark was no longer required.

Lucas Le Mans 24 production 1976 Later (1976) Lucas production

Some small companies have made replicas in more recent years, like the excellent versions manufactured by VHR (Peter Appleyard) of Sheffield (UK).

Since a couple of years replicas have been produced in larger quantities and of a somewhat lower quality: the “Le Mans” and “Lucas” lettering as well as the font of the part number of the front lens is not an exact copy of the original. In addition the “NL” mark is no longer etched but moulded (raised) in the glass which makes it very easy to recognise a reproduction lamp. In addition they tend to form a thin white layer on the inside of the glass lens due to vaporization of the kit used during manufacturing, which apparently has not sufficiently cured (a well known problem in headlamp manufacturing). Prices are rather attractive compared to originals.

Lucas Le Mans modern replica Modern replica

More importantly, the beam patterns of these modern replicas are not of the quality of the original Lucas beam patterns as can be seen in the pictures below. The picture on the left shows a well defined beam with a good horizontal cut-off line, the result of using the original Lucas Le Mans 24 headlamp and a good quality bulb. The pitcure on the left is an example of the beam pattern of a Repro Le Mans 24 headlamp using a good bulb. The pattern is rather “undefined” and the horizontal cut-off is far from perfect.

                               Original Lucas Le Mans 24 beam pattern             Reproduction Le Mans 24 beam pattern

Survey of Jaguars using “Le Mans 24” headlights

Many jaguars in the period 1953 to 1960 destined for a number of continental European countries had the “Le Mans 24” headlamp although the actual types differ somewhat per car. The survey below shows the “Le Mans 24” types used for the XK types as well.

Survey Le Mans24 application Jaguar Click to open table

We mentioned already that there was no standardization of vehicle lighting (yet) in Europe. This is also the reason why different bulb types are used for different countries on the continent, also driven by the (interest of) national lighting industries like Osram (Germany), Philips (Holland) and Mazda, Philips and Marchal (all in France), not forgetting the British lamp industry in their attempt to keep the BPF bulb alive.

Norway, Sweden and Germany  had national requirements stating that the maximum power (per filament) of the bulb should not exceed 35 Watt.  This is the reason why the “Le Mans 24” versions destined for these three countries used Lucas bulb 350 (other reference: Philips 12721).

Switzerland and Holland (or better The Netherlands) allowed a two-filament bulb with 45 and 40 Watt power, meaning for these countries Lucas bulb 370 (other reference: Philips 12741) was used.

As mentioned before, France was a completely different case with their 1937 legal requirement to have yellow headlights in combination with a 3 pin BA21d 36/45W yellow bulb (reference Philips 12736 Y). Lucas provided dedicated “Le Mans 24” light units for this, initially coded 554615 and later 555288.

XK 120 with “Le Mans 24” headlamps

Note: XK 120’s normally had the PF770 headlamps whereas the Le Mans 24 headlamp belongs to the PF700 group. The Le Mans 24 headlamps had the same outer chrome rim although the light unit was of course smaller. This was solved by using a different “light unit retaining plate”. See the complete survey under chapter “Le Mans 24” Headlight fixation systems and parts.

XK 120 (1952/1954) for Norway, Sweden and Germany

Not specified by Jaguar for the XK 120, but following the information provided in various Lucas catalogues these cars may (could) have been executed from 1952 onwards with Lucas 51478A (Jaguar part number unknown) using the “Le Mans 24” light unit 554665 whereby the standard bulb Lucas 370 has been replaced by  bulb Lucas 350 which is a BPF P22d36 lamp with 35W/35W filaments.

XK 120 (1952-1954) for Switzerland and Holland

According the Lucas 400D & E catalogue (but not mentioned in the Jaguar SPC) these cars had the same Lucas 51478A unit (Jaguar part number unknown) installed, using the Le Mans 24 light unit 554665 in combination with bulb Lucas 370 which is a BPF P22d/36 lamp with 45W/40W filaments.

Late XK 120 (1953-1954) for France: no “Le Mans 24” units

The Lucas “Le Mans 24” light unit was not yet available for the French market. Modified PF770 versions were still used for France with initially Lucas part number 50840/A and later 50780/A; both used Lucas light unit 553961. Also reference is made of Lucas 51194B which was a later replacement version for all “French” version for the XK 120 1949-1954, however with a different light unit (Lucas 553948).

XK 140 with “Le Mans 24” headlamps

XK 140 for Norway, Sweden and Germany

These cars had Lucas 51564A/B (Jaguar part number C5626) installed, using the “Le Mans 24” light unit 554665 in combination with bulb Lucas 350 which is a BPF P22d36 lamp with 35W/35W filaments.

XK 140 for Switzerland and Holland

These cars had Lucas 51565A/B (Jaguar part number C5625) installed, using the “Le Mans 24” light unit 554665 in combination with bulb Lucas 370 which is a BPF P22d36 lamp with 45W/40W filaments.

XK 140 for France

Special version for France only with Lucas 51563A/B (Jaguar part number C5627) installed, using the “Le Mans 24” light unit 555288 and no bulb was provided by Lucas. Lucas provided bulb adaptor 562303  (intended for the BA21d 3 pin base) in combination with Shell adaptor 554909 with the head lamp unit. It is assumed that the French Jaguar importer Delecroix (or even a local Jaguar dealer) installed a 3 pin yellow 36/45W filament bulb. We assume that this bulb was manufactured by various French bulb manufacturers (like e.g. Norma, Mazda and Philips) and was branded Marchall with code Granilux 12V 36 / 45 W and approval number Agréée ABTP 288.

XK 150 with “Le Mans 24” headlamps

XK 150 for Norway, Sweden and Germany

These cars continued the use of Lucas 51564A/B (see XK 140).

XK 150 for Switzerland and Holland

These cars continued the use of Lucas 51565A/B (see XK 140). Note: this headlamp is now indicated by Jaguar as F700 whereas the same item is indicated as PF700 for the XK 150 for Norway, Sweden and Germany; it may be assumed that this is an omission as also the Lucas catalogue still uses the PF700 description.

XK 150 for France

These cars continued the use of Lucas 51563A/B (see XK 140). Note:  the french headlamp for the XK 150 is now indicated as F700EF, whereas the same item is indicated as PF700EF for the XK 140; it may be assumed that this is an omission as also the Lucas catalogue still uses PF700. Also to be noted that Lucas used the code EF for their entire product portfolio as an abbreviation for “Export France”.

XK-SS with Le Mans 24 headlamps

The XK-SS destined for the USA  in 1958 received the Lucas “Le Mans 24” light unit but in this case without the typical large chrome rims as used on the XK’s. This headlamp was of the (P)F700LR (Long Range) type with code number 51766B/E which assembly made use of the 554665 light unit and the 370 (45/40W) bulb. This description in fact refers to the “Switzerland and Holland” specification; versions for Norway, Sweden and Germany could be obtained by changing the bulb for the Lucas 350 type. No indication exist for a possible Export France version.

 “Le Mans 24” headlight fixation systems and parts

To understand the evolution of the “Le Mans 24” fixation over the different generations of Jaguars, we have to know the way the older PF770 headlamp systems were mounted.

PF770 Headlamp fixation till March/April 1950

The fixation of early PF770 headlamps (with the “inward flange” headlamp bowls/domes/ buckets) was different from all later versions. The horizontal beam adjustment was done with a LH and RH bracket attached to the Fixation ring and two screws fixed to the Retainer rim. The screws were placed in a radial direction (see pictures below). The vertical adjustment screw (at the top of the light unit) was placed in the direction of the lamp axis (like all later adjustment systems. The fixing ring had a riveted tapped plate for the screw and a short compression spring.

Lucas PF770 early exploded view  Early PF770 systemLucas PF770 early front view Lucas early PF770 construction

This system (on basis of the headlamp bowl/dome/bucket with the inward flange; see photo below), used the following parts (for the XK 120):

  1. Fixation ring Jaguar 3450 or Lucas 552704, complete with two brackets for horizontal adjustment of light unit
  2. Retaining rim Jaguar 3430 or Lucas 552686, no ears for fixation but a wire spring was used instead; two tapped holes for the (horizontal) adjustment screw
  3. Wire spring Jaguar 3441 or Lucas 552687
PF770 early back shell bowl PF770 early fixation ring springPF770 inner headlamp ring Fixation ring PF770 USA 

Note that the headlamps for 7 inch USA & Canada Sealed Beam light units had a different Fixation/Retaining ring Jaguar 3450 (Lucas 553614) with a different inner diameter to match the smaller light unit size.

Retaining rim USA sealed beam  Lucas 554596 Retaining Ring Sealed Beam unit (early/late PF770)

PF770 Headlamp fixation from March/April 1950 onwards

The headlamp bowl/dome/bucket had now changed to Lucas PF770 Mk II with an outward flange, which also changed the fixation method of the light unit itself: screws were used now instead of the wire spring:

  1. Fixation ring Lucas 553877; zinc plated
  2. Retaining rim Lucas 553878 with 7¼” aperture; fixation with 4 “ears” and screws

Headlamp bowl 2Headlamp bowl 1 PF770 Mk IIFixation ring 553972 Retaining ring 553971 Fixation ring 553877 and Retaining rim 553878

“Le Mans 24” headlamps on Jaguar Mk VII from 1953 onwards

The Lucas parts catalogue refers to the following parts for “Le Mans 24” light units first installed on a Jaguar Mk VII in 1953. None of these (post 1950) PF770 parts have been continued on the later “Le Mans 24” applications. The Jaguar Mk VII with “Le Mans 24” headlights was the first to change over to the 3 screw adjuster system.

  1. Fixation ring Lucas 553972; zinc plated, looking identical to to the original (later) PF770 ring Lucas 553877 but modified to accept a 7” light unit. The adjustment screw has a longer compression spring in a spot welded socket which is tapped at the bottom for the screw.
  2. Retainer rim Lucas 553971; chromed, now suitable for 7” light units, with a 6⅝” aperture; otherwise identical to the original PF770 Mk II rim Lucas 553878 with 4 “ears” and screws

Note that the Jaguar Mk VII by 1953 had already the (late)r PF770 Mk II headlamp bowl/dome/bucket with the outward flange, requiring a different fixation ring than the pre March/April 1950  types; installing “Le Mans 24” headlamps on earlier Mk VII versions may therefore not be feasible.

Fixation ring 553972 Retaining ring 553971 Fixation ring 553972 and Retaining rim 553971

“Le Mans 24” headlamps on Jaguar XK 120 from 1953 onwards

Jaguar XK 120 versions (1953 onwards) equipped with “Le Mans 24” light units (Lucas 554665) used a mix of existing and new different parts. The XK 120 with “Le Mans 24” headlamps continued the old horizontal headlamp adjustment system.

  1. Fixation Ring (Jaguar 3450; Lucas 553614; zinc plated); this ring is also used for the USA & Canada 7” sealed beam headlamps and has two “ears” for horizontal bean adjustment and also acting as pivot for vertical adjustment (with two screws positioned horizontal) .
  2. Retainer Rim (Lucas 554596; chromed);  probably a modified version (with a 6⅝” aperture) of the standard (later) XK 120 Retainer rim Lucas 553878 (with 7¼” aperture).
Fixation ring PF770 USA    Retaining rim 554596Fixation ring 553614 and Retaining rim 554596
“Le Mans 24” headlamps on Jaguar XK 140 and 150

The XK 140 and 150 continued the use of the Lucas back shell/dome/bucket PF770 Mk II version. Remember that this is intended for 7.7” headlamps, whereas the Lucas “Le Mans 24” is a 7” light unit.  With the introduction of the XK140 & 150 Jaguar changed over to the J700 concept: a 7” light unit. But also the USA and Canada versions (Lucas 51562) had a 7” light unit (although of the Sealed Beam type). The “Le Mans 24” light units (Lucas 554665) shared the same parts with the J700 and the 7” Sealed Beam versions. So XK 140s and 150s from the USA can receive “Le Mans 24” headlights, which is an advantage when these cars are brought to Norway, Sweden, Germany, Holland and Switzerland. Unfortunately the “Le mans 24” light unit is not allowed in the USA itself.

  1. Fixation Ring Jaguar 5302 and Lucas 554906 (zinc plated)
  2. Retainer Rim Jaguar 5301 and Lucas 554907 (chromed); 4 “ears” for fixation.
Fixation ring XK 140 150 Le Mans 24   Retaining rim Le Mans 24 for XK 140 150                                 Fixation ring 554906                                         Retaining rim 554907

“Le Mans 24” headlamps on Jaguar XK-SS (USA only)

This headlamp was of the (P)F700LR (Long Range) type with code number Lucas 51766B/E. It consisted of the following fixation parts:

  1. Fixation Ring Lucas 554672 ; zinc plated with 6 slots (instead of normally 3)
  2. Retainer Rim Lucas 554893 ; chromed. Also used for other F700 applications.

Retaining rim 554672 XKSS Lucas Fixation ring 554872

“Le Mans 24” headlamps on Jaguar Mk1 and Mk2

For addiional information the Jaguar Mk1 and Mk2 applications of the “Le Mans 24” are also presented here. In general we observe that Jaguar had definitely closed the PF770 (Mk II) era and now adopted the Lucas F700 range of components for their headlights.

Lucas F700 exploded view Typical (P)F700 arrangement om Mk1 & Mk2

These parts have been widely used on many British cars of the 60s: Austin, MG (Midget and B), Rover, Triumph, Morris, Mini and Austin-Healey. Spare parts should be easy to obtain.

  1. Fixation Ring Lucas 554782 (zinc plated)
  2. Retainer Rim Lucas 554781 (chromed); 3 “ears” for fixation.
 Fixation rings Retaining rims Note difference in size between XK140/150 rings (left on both photos) and Mk1/Mk2 versions

Approval marks for (continental) Europe or “The myth of the NL mark

As mentioned above, various European countries (except GB) required a headlamp that fulfilled all legal requirements regarding the “sharp cut-off” of the dipped beam in combination with a high light output, that could not be fulfilled with the existing Lucas headlamps with BPF bulbs. With the introduction of the “Le Mans 24” light unit this became feasible and three versions were made each aiming at the requirements of a group of countries (or a single country in the case of France):

  1. Norway, Sweden and Germany with light unit 554665 and bulb 350 (35/35 W)
  2. Switzerland and the Netherlands  with light unit 554665 and bulb 370 (45/45 W)
  3. France with initially light unit 554615 and later with light unit 555288 in combination with a 3 pin yellow bulb 36/45W.

Per January 1st, 1954 a new law had been introduced in the Netherlands that all lighting (and bulbs) of all vehicles on the road should have a “state approval mark” in order to increase road safety. The requirements had been laid down in this law and testing requirements had been assigned to (and consequently drafted by) the Dutch electrical testing Institute KEMA. The “state approval mark”  should be clearly visible on the relevant part. From that moment onwards all approved vehicle lighting (from bicycle rear-lamps to car headlamps) carried the NL mark. The “Le Mans 24” light unit was no exception and the manufacturer was obliged to put the NL approval mark on their product.

Lucas Le Mans glass lens  NL approval mark etched on front lens “Le Mans 24”

All stories about NL meaning “not legal” or “near left” are incorrect: it merely was a type approval for the Dutch market required to sell Jaguars in Holland. There are various examples of other Lucas light units that showed this NL mark on the lens.

Lucas other lens with NL NL mark on light unit 552402 or 553759 for S700 headlamps
Jaguar Mk VIII headlamp  IMG_0307 NL mark on Lucas 51507A PF 700 vertical dip
Lucas 700 continental NL Lucas 700 Continental 553940 with NL mark

The Lucas Le Mans 24 light unit 554665 was therefore sent to KEMA in Arnhem to obtain the NL type approval and it successfully accomplished all tests. If we look at Jaguar only, this particular light unit was not only used in Holland, but in (at least) 4 other countries (Norway, Sweden, Germany, Switzerland) and we should not forget other countries like Belgium (163 XK140 and XK150 in total), Italy (47) and Portugal (18) that have not been mentioned specifically in the Spare Parts Catalogue. Lucas supplied the same light unit to other British car manufacturers so the total production of the 554665 light unit must have been several thousands.

The NL mark is the only “visible” national approval mark that we know on headlamps (apart from the later “E mark” for Europe). We should not exclude that the Dutch approval mark was accepted by other countries that had some form of cooperation with KEMA.

KEMA was (and is) a leading European (ISO certified) laboratory in the area of electrical safety and the KEMA approval mark is still found today on many electrical products. Today electrical safety schemes in Europe have a similar cooperation model (named ENEC) whereby the approval testing outcome of one member country is accepted by the other EU countries.

France also had a national homologation system for headlights for automobiles. The French Ministerial Decree of 8th October 1929 formulated new regulations for car lighting, becoming effective per 1st May 1930. According this decree all cars shall have lighting equipment that should be able to:

  1. Light the road over 100 metres (indicated with the letter A)
  2. To suppress any blinding, without ceasing to light the road, when encountering other road users (indicate with the letter B)

All headlights developed to fulfil the above requirements will be investigated by a committee of the Ministry of Public Works (Travaux Public) to receive a conformity mark mentioning e.g. Agréé AB (Certified AB). All headlights mentioning Agréé AB are followed by the letters TP (Travaux Public) and the number of the certification of the homologation (№ 123) issued by the committee.

Like the NL mark etched in the front glass for The Netherlands and Switzerland on Lucas 51565A/B headlights, the French version had a similar etched marking reading Agréé AB-TP № 457 in a dashed rectangle to show conformity to French regulations

In 1976 the new European Regulation76/761/EEC on “motor-vehicle headlamps which function as main-beam and/or dipped-beam headlamps and to incandescent electric filament lamps for such headlamps” became mandatory for all EEC member states. This replaced the various national regulations in action so far. It is also clear now that the 1976 production of the Le Mans 24 headlamps was merely aimed at replacing existing Le Mans 24 light units or for special race applications, because this (outdated) optical concept could never fulfil the newly developed requirements, nor was there a commercial interest for Lucas to do so. Therefore the need to have the NL mark on these light units was no longer there and the E mark (replacing national approval marks) was out of reach.

The Lucas 2 speed DR1 wiper motor


imageComplete DR1 wiper motor unit for XK 140

The Jaguar Mk VII was Jaguars first car to receive the new Lucas DR1 two speed motor in 1952 and the DR1 was used by Jaguar until 1957 when it was replaced by the DR3 type. Based on the experience gained from 1952 onwards all Jaguar XK 140 versions got this 2 speed Lucas DR1 type in 1954 and all have Jaguar Part Nº C11840 which is Lucas Part Nº 75233A. Next to the aforementioned Jaguar  Mk VII also the jaguar Mk VIII in 1957 as well as the jaguar Mk1 2.4 litre saloon from 1956 onwards had a DR1 type wiper motor.  Although in total 7 different Lucas DR1 motors have been used by Jaguar the wiper motor of the Jaguar XK 140 is unique as it is the only DR1 motor with a 90° wipe angle! Even if we include all 23 different Lucas DR1 motors supplied to different car manufacturers (see survey below) the DR1 motor for the XK 140 remains the only one with a 90° wipe angle.

Survey cars with DR1 two speedSurvey of DR1 motors

So none of the other DR1 wiper motors are a direct replacement for the XK 140 and therefore be careful when purchasing a DR1 motor that has not the correct part number  Lucas 75233. Unfortunately there are many sellers on the internet that automatically include the XK 140 in their list of applications when offering a particular (but wrong) DR1 motor. It is of course possible to replace the “Shaft and Gear” that determines the wipe angle (as we will see later)  but finding a 90° version is “a needle in a haystack”  as probably less than ten thousand have been made by Lucas ever.

A lot has been written about the Lucas DR1 wiper motor, the wiper loom and the required wiper switch types. Reference is made of the excellent story on the subject by Eric Capron presented on the Jag-lovers website . But as all DR1 motors “as far as still alive” have fulfilled their duties for over 55 years, it is often required to thoroughly check the internals (or even to do a complete overhaul) to get it working again in a reliable way. And exactly this particular subject is not well documented. For that reason this article has been written, to learn about the mechanical aspects of this engine and about the problems you may encounter.

The DR1 construction

As the writer is far from an expert in electric motors, we will refrain from an in-depth electrical analysis of the motor and stick to the (electro) mechanical aspects. The Lucas DR1 wiper unit is a combination of a DC electro motor and gearbox in which a crank mechanism translates the high speed rotation of the motor in a low speed lengthwise movement of the wiper rack. The motor is of the “eccentric shunt” type, which stands for a motor with only one field coil situated on one side of the armature whereby the armature is positioned offset from the centre. The ‘ U ‘ shaped yoke of mild steel which forms part of the body of the unit completes the magnetic circuit, bringing the opposite polarity to the pole piece on the other side of the armature.


Disassembly starts by removing (if not already done when taking the wiper motor from the car) the aluminium cover from the commutator end bracket (one screw 2BA) after which the wires of the wiper loom become visible. There are 5 “push-in contacts” to which the individual wires have been connected and a special rectangular rubber grommet through which all 5 wires run. Try to save this one because they are difficult to find. The “End Cover Grommet” has Lucas part number 740722.

Note: a replacement  “End Cover Grommet” Lucas 740722 is very difficult to find. The Aston Martin Feltham Club took the initiative to invest in a mould and remanufacture a small batch of these grommets in black poly-urethane and the grommet is also available to others. If you need one, contact the AMF Club on and look for Email in the RH column.  

Lucas DR1 wiring
The DR1 Commutator End Bracket with 5 contacts, armature  bearing housing and 2 through bolts

Now remove the 3 screws that hold the armature shaft bearing and the brushes and commutator will become visible. The complete end-bracket can be pulled outwards a bit  after the 2 long through bolts (that connect end bracket, yoke and gearbox together) have been removed. The internal wiring is still attached and has to be removed with a soldering iron whereby the 5 lower contacts and the wires to the lower pivots of the brush gear have to be carefully removed. The brush gear can now be removed, but take care of the little spring in the middle and the two spring brackets that hold the ends of the spring ( see also the “exploded view”). Open the aluminium cover of the gearbox by removing the 4 screws. The crank is attached to the wiper rack at one end and to the gearwheel at the other end by means of a circlip that holds (resp.) a washer, a conically wound spring and a special washer. Remove the circlip but take care that it doesn’t get launched! Now the crank can be removed. Turn the gearbox + motor upside down and remove the circlip at the end of the gearwheel shaft: the gearwheel can be taken out from above. The armature can be removed via the open side of the Yoke. Remove the complete Yoke as well, noting the wire that runs from the Park switch through a hole in the gearbox and through the Yoke. The field coil and pole piece can be removed by unscrewing 2 screws at the underside of the Yoke. Access to these screws is located underneath the wiper motor rubber mounting Jaguar Part Nº 3556 and Lucas Part Nº 741583.

image XK 140 wiper motor rubber mounting

Also note the thermostatic switch which is riveted to the upper part of the yoke. It can be removed by drilling the rivet from the outside (3.0 mm drill) after which the assembly can be taken away from the inside. The Park (or end-) switch can be removed after the wire has been removed with a soldering iron. Unscrew and remove the cylindrical knurled adjusting nut at the end of the screw and lift the switch out of the gearbox. Save the spring over the adjusting screw.

Clean everything thoroughly: 60 year old grease contaminated with road dirt doesn’t help to create a “second life” for our wiper motor.

The motor parts further examined

The Lucas DR1 motor consists of the following main parts:

Lucas DR1 drawing exploded view Exploded view DR1 unit
  • Yoke
  • Field coil
  • Armature & commutator
  • Brushes
  • Commutator  end-bracket

The yoke

The yoke has a typical U-shape with the field coil and pole piece mounted at the bottom and another pole piece at the (half cylindrical) top. On top of the Yoke the Lucas type plate is attached with 2 small rivets. In case it is required to repaint the Yoke it is possible to (carefully!) remove these rivets using a small screw driver. The Yoke originally had black wrinkle paint.

Lucas DR1 wire connections Yoke with field coil and pole piece

The Lucas thermostatic cut-out switch.

The Lucas DR1 motor has a thermostatic cut-out switch to prevent any damage if the motor is excessively overloaded for whatever reason. This switch is wired in series with the armature and mounted on the inside of the yoke near the second pole-piece. It consists of a bi-metal strip and contacts, which open when the temperature rise increases a certain value and closes after the motor has cooled down. The thermostatic cut-out switch may have stopped functioning after many decades and is not available as a Lucas spare part. For the DR1 the cut-out switch will come in at about 135 to 150°C and closes again when the temperature has dropped to about 80°C.

Lucas DR1 thermo switch Old (broken) thermostatic switch and modern replacement

A replacement Thermal Protector

These are miniature (15 x 7 x 3.5 mm) fully enclosed switches with a positive make and break action with a  bimetal disc with a precise repeatable temperature performance over life (over 10k cycles). Various temperature settings are available. These switches have two 70 mm long wires that normally are sufficiently long to replace the wires of the old Lucas thermostatic cut-out switch. The one I chose for the DR1 is the version with a 140 ± 5°C temperature which resets at a temperature of 100 ± 15 °C. It is installed at the same spot as the original switch, but now using a small bracket that holds the thermal protector. It is sometimes easier to drill and tap a new thread (e.g. M4) instead of using the old copper rivet.

Lucas DR1 thermo switch replacement Bracket to hold replacement Thermal Protector

The field coil

The field coil consists in the case of a 2 speed motor type of two windings: (1) the field coil windings itself and (2) the additional  resistance windings for the Fast speed status of the motor. The field coil and pole piece (which fits in the square centre hole of the field coil) is mounted to the Yoke with 2 countersunk 2BA x ½” screws from the underside.

Lucas DR1 field coilField coil (Lucas Part Nº 740593) including pole piece

Field coil housing

The field coil housing has 3 wire connections (eyelets) in most schemes referred to as 1 – 2 – 3 from left to right:

  • Connection 1: field windings and resistor windings start here
  • Connection 2: field windings  end here. Resistance of field coil about 8 Ω
  • Connection 3: resistor windings end here. Resistance about 13 Ω

Lucas DR1 field coil scheme

To check whether the field coil is still OK we can measure the following resistance values (all values ± 1 Ω):

  • R 1-2 =  8 Ω,
  • R 1-3 = 13 Ω,
  • R 2-3 = 21 Ω

The thin copper wires from the two windings and the wiring to the rest of the wiper loom are soldered to the eyelets. Note that the field coil housing is made of a thermoplastic material that will melt if soldering takes (too) long!


The Armature and Commutator has Jaguar Part Nº C11840/3 and Lucas Part Nº 740616. Professional testing equipment is required to test the windings of the armature, but the condition of the commutator can be visually inspected. If burned or rough it can be lightly skimmed in a lathe after which the grooves have to be re-cut.

Lucas DR1 armatureArmature Lucas 740616

Commutator end-bracket

The Commutator end-bracket holds the armature brushes and the electrical contacts where the wiper motor loom from the wiper switch connects to the wiper motor: there are 5 terminals in total, numbered 1 to 5. The system of push-in connectors in which the wire ends are placed is difficult to install and rather unreliable over the years. An alternative solution is to solder the wires of the wiper loom directly to these terminals. For ease of (wiper motor) replacement  it is then possible to cut the wiper loom 2 inches from the end and place  double ended Lucas wire connectors and solder “bullets” to all 10 wire ends. We can use 5 individual connectors or the Lucas 5 pole connector Jaguar Part Nº 3570 and Lucas Part Nº 850832.

Lucas DR1 wiring Commutator end bracket with 5 terminals

In addition the commutator end-bracket holds the armature shaft (brass) bush bearing which is self-adjusting, apart from the end-float of the armature shaft. The end-float is adjustable at the other end of the armature shaft in the gearbox. The screw and lock nut should be adjusted in such a way that the shaft can rotate freely with the smallest amount of end-float possible.

Lucas DR1 armature and gear Adjustable end-float of armature at left shaft end

The carbon Brushes can be replaced if necessary. The set of brushes has Jaguar Part Nº C11840/2 and Lucas Part Nº  729367 (later replaced by Lucas Part Nº  508170) and are identical for most Lucas wiper motors, measuring 5.2  x 5.2 x 8.2mm.

Lucas DR1 brushes Set of Brushes Lucas 729367


Sometimes it is necessary to replace (some of) the internal wiring which may have become damaged or brittle. The best wire to use here should have a high degree of “flexibility” as we will have to “fold” various motor parts together during assembly. If the field coil is still OK, we can solder new short pieces of wiring to the eyelets numbers 1 to 3 and connect the other end of the wiring to terminals 1 to 3 of the Commutator end-bracket. (See drawing below). The wires of the thermostatic switch (or a new Thermal Protector) run from terminal number 5 to one of the brushes. Please note that (contrary to the Lucas drawing) I had to reverse the polarity of the two brushes (positions A en B) to get the motor running in the correct direction. So don’t take this (Lucas) drawing as the only official benchmark. In my case the return wire from the thermostatic switch runs to brush contact B (and not to A). The wire soldered to the other brush contact A is connected to terminal 4, to which also the wire from the Park switch is soldered.

Lucas DR1 drawing electrical scheme
“Official” Lucas wiring scheme; note that brush contacts A en B may have to be reversed

Rotation Directions in N, F and P

The large plastic gearwheel turns with the wiper switch in position N (normal) or F (fast) in a counter clockwise (CCW) direction if we look from above (Alu cover removed). In position P (park) the gearwheel should turn in the opposite direction, so clockwise (CW), in order to operate the park switch whereby the eccentric mechanism increases the stroke of the crank via a clever construction on the gearwheel.

Eccentric mechanism & Park Switch

A special mechanism on the gear wheel pin (to which the crank is fixed) secures that the crank stroke becomes longer when the gearwheel turns in a clockwise direction.  The far end of the crank (or better the end of the wiper rack to which the crank is connected) can then operate the park switch and break the electrical circuit (stopping the motor) in the required “park” position. By moving the park switch with an adjustment screw fore and aft it is possible to choose the correct park positions with the wipers close to the lower windscreen rubber.

Lucas DR1 drawing park switch Lucas DR1 eccentric mechanism

With the wiper switch in Normal or Fast the gearwheel turns in a counter-clockwise direction and the end of the crank cannot touch the park switch. So only by reversing the direction of the motor the park switch can be operated. Also note that the DR1 for the XK 140 has a wipe angle of 90° with the wiper switch in N or F, but the park position itself may be somewhat beyond the 90° angle.

When adjusting and looking for the correct wiper-arm position on the splined wheelbox spindle (e.g. after a total renovation) it is first of all advisable to put the wiper-arms in the upright position because otherwise the wiper blades may run over the windscreen rubber and get damaged. Some may also put the wiper switch in N and use the ignition switch (with key) to find the end positions of the wipers. But when thereafter the wiper switch is put in P, remember that the wiper may run further down the windscreen than has been found with the wiper switch in N!

Lucas DR1 end switch  Park switch components (Left) and in position (Right)

The adjustment mechanism of the park switch consists of a long screw with square head (that fits in the thermoset plastic housing of the switch), a long spring over the screw and a knurled nut on the outside of the gear box housing. Note the short earth wire with eyelet which is positioned over the screw between the spring and the plastic switch housing. Clean all these parts thoroughly or even add some tooth washers at both ends of the spring to secure a proper earth connection. After many years the spring may have lost some of its strength, meaning that the spring may not push the switch as far back as is sometimes required. It may help to pull and stretch the spring back to its original length or fit an appropriate replacement.

Installing the wiper motor in the car

It seems wise to first (bench) test the motor out of the car with a 12 Volt battery . Use the excellent schemes by Eric Capron presented on the Jag-lovers website (see chapter Introduction) for the basic connections. Test for all three positions (N, F and P) whether the gearwheel runs in the correct direction.

As the “striker” (that operates the park switch) is on the end of the wiper rack, it is not (yet) feasible to “bench” test the automatic park function, but if the switch contact is slightly depressed (with your finger for instance) the circuit is interrupted and the motor should stop immediately, if everything is wired correctly.

Installing the wiper motor in the car is a real challenge especially in case of the XK 140 FHC, as the motor is partly hidden underneath the LH wing (fender). For the OTS and DHC the position of the wiper motor is better accessable, but nevertheless the following information might  be of use.

Placing the wiper rack, the crank, the components of the eccentric mechanism and finally the top cover (with 4 screws) is impossible with the motor in its final position (three holes for the rubber mounting). For the FHC it is easier to first place the motor away from the wing closer towards the engine, make all connections and place all parts first and only then postion the wiper motor in its final place. See the steps hereafter.

Use some grease on places where required (shafts, gearwheel, wiper rack head, eccentric mechanism, etc). It is recommended to pull the wiper rack a little out of the tubing (wiper arms removed from the spindles so they can turn freely!). Then place the crankpin in the wiper rack, taking care that the small bracket with the striker is on the side of the park switch. The other end of the crank fits over the pin on the gearwheel. First mount the special washer with the three “dents” on the crank (note the two flat sides of the pin), followed by the conical spring with a washer on top, and the circlip to secure the spring. This circlip is very difficult to place in particular in case of the FHC. I found it helpful to use a (self made) tool to press the spring and washer down while sliding the circlip in place. (See drawing).

Then the wiper motor can be put in its final location by first pushing the wiper rack back in the tubing and installing the large tubing nut. Don’t forget to install the three nuts (and lockwashers) from the inside of the car to secure the wiper motor bracket studs.

Jaguar XK Windscreen Washers in detail

  • Introduction

Jaguar used windscreen washer equipment manufactured and supplied by Trico Folberth Ltd, of Brentford, UK for their entire XK range (either standard on SE/MC models or optional on standard models). Next to Trico another UK company, Tudor, provided windscreen washer equipment to British carmakers (e.g. BMC), but Tudor was never used on Jaguar XK’s. Both companies became important suppliers of equipment to the British motor industry but also sold directly to the public in the form of “aftermarket” accessories.

Trico had been established in about 1917 (initially named the Tri-Continental Corporation) with manufacturing facilities in Buffalo USA, as a company that specializes in windshield wipers and other automotive equipment in particular related to vacuum powered systems. Trico acquired Folberth (of Cleveland, Ohio) in 1925 which company had been manufacturing vacuum wiper systems since 1919. Thus Trico became Trico-Folberth.

Trico Folberth Late 1920’s Trico-Folberth product

As early as 1928 Trico-Folberth Ltd. opened a UK plant in Brentford  (and a second one after the war) where it manufactured a large range of products (windscreen wipers & washers, switches, cigar lighters, etc) for almost 7 decades until the late 1990s. Trico relocated its UK operations to Pontypool, South Wales where it still resides today.

Trico HQ Brentford Trico factory in Brentford in Art Deco style

Trico-Folberth also established manufacturing facilities in Australia in 1958 as a supply basis for Australia, New Zealand and in fact the whole of South-East Asia.

Jaguar’s relation with Trico-Folberth ended with the introduction of Lucas electrical washer equipment in the early 60’s. The complete system including  jets, T-piece and hoses was now provided by Lucas. They are not further covered in this article.

image Trico-Folberth 1951 advertisement
  •   Trico Part numbers in UK and USA

As Trico windscreen washer equipment existed already in the USA years before Jaguar introduced their XK 120, most washer parts have an American origin. Trico USA used a coding system with 5-digit part numbers (with some exceptions) and these have been taken over where possible by Trico-Folberth in England. In addition Trico-Folberth UK developed a number of parts specifically destined for the British automotive industry, like Jaguar.

To make a distinction in “corporate Trico parts” and UK specific parts, Trico-Folberth UK used a prefix “X”  in front of the 5-digit “corporate” parts and introduced 6-digit part numbers for UK specific parts, all in the 700000, 800000 or 900000 range. This applies to both new UK assemblies (often using US components) as well as new UK components.

Also note that Trico UK commercial washer model indications started with XAW followed by number and suffix.  “X” stood apparently for “Universal” applications, but when specific assemblies per brand were made Trico UK often used the first letter of that brand: e.g. the Windscreen Washer Assembly for the XK 120 had the commercial indication JAW12-3. A Ford version was called FAW6-30 and those for Vauxhall were named VAW9-20 etc.

Trico pre 1950 US washer bottles Early US Trico washer systems

When looking at Washer equipment for Jaguar XK’s, the fact that (1) Trico was both active in the USA and UK and (2) the vast majority of XK’s went to the USA, meant that through the years many Trico windscreen washer systems in XK’s may have become an amalgamation of (original) UK parts and US (spare) parts. The same situation may have developed in Australia where local parts (e.g. glass bottles and labels) could have been used as spare parts for original Trico UK products.

This article tries to clarify what is original Trico/Jaguar equipment and what may have been added/changed using other Trico (UK, USA or Australia) parts over the past 6 decades.

  • Trico Spare Parts

Spare parts are becoming (very) scarce, although some complete products are being remanufactured nowadays. At some autojumbles you may be lucky enough to find that part you’re looking for (instead of buying a complete new complete product). Trico spare or service parts were available at almost any garage in the 1960’s. The photos below show an example of a Trico UK spare part box and content of around 1970; it was coded Trico XAW-101A.

Trico spare parts box XAW 101A Trico spare parts box content Trico XAW 101A
  • The XK Windscreen Washer system

The Trico system uses vacuum from the inlet manifold to (eventually) spray washer fluid on the windscreen. Functioning of the Trico washer system in short: when the Trico control button on the instrument panel is operated, underpressure moves the rubber diaphragm up, sucking fluid from the reservoir and filling the casing; after the control button has been released the vacuum is removed and the atmospheric pressure plus the compression spring above the diaphragn forces the fluid out towards the washer jets (as  a valve blocks the way back in the reservoir).

Trico vacuum washer schematic  Trico washer pump schematically

The complete Windscreen Washer Assembly of the XK 120 DHC and FHC  (comprising everything required for a complete installation) had Jaguar Part Nº C5472  and Trico Part Nº 800010, but more interestingly a commercial type number JAW12-3, which translates as a Jaguar-optimised version of the universal XAW12-3 Washer system. This unit had a “Jar, Pump and Bracket Assembly”  with Jaguar Part Nº C5473/1 and Trico Part Nº 800008.

The XK140 OTS and DHC models continued the Trico washer unit of the XK 120 (though with some minor changes like rubber hoses). The complete Washer unit for the XK140 OTS and DHC had Jaguar Part Nº C5596 but no Trico type number is given by Jaguar. We can safely assume however that Trico continued the XAW12-3 type coding. Also the same “Jar, Pump and Bracket Assembly”  with Jaguar Part Nº C5473/1 and Trico Part Nº 800008 was continued for the XK 140 OTS and DHC.

imageThe parts of a Trico Windscreen Washer Assembly

Trico UK also provided a complete system solution  for the installation of a Windscreen Washer unit in the XK 140 FHC. This unit had Jaguar Part Nº C9178 (and Trico type coding XAW6-2 or possibly JAW6-2 as we will see later). Heart of this unit is the “Jar, Pump and Bracket Assembly” which for the FHC had Jaguar Part Nº  C9179 and Trico Part Nº 800076.

Washer system complete FHC bottle, pump & bracket assembly Jaguar C9179

The windscreen washer version of the XK 140 FHC differs from the OTS and DHC version because (as Porter mentions) “probably space was tight” in the engine compartment and therefore a (smaller) square bottle had been chosen instead of the (larger) round version as used for the OTS and DHC. We can confirm that the “tight space” was indeed the reason for this change, as also Trico used this as an argument when positioning this bottle configuration in their programme (see below). Later in the 1950’s Trico-Folberth UK offered the XK 140 FHC washer solution as a standard version for the  “aftermarket”. It was now called the “XAW6-2 Universal Model Small Jar type….. for cars where fitting space is extremely restricted”. See below left.

Trico XAW 6-2   XAW6-2 (from 1960 Trico UK catalogue)

Note: Trico also offered the XAW6-2 washer system for some British Ford cars, as can be seen below. There exists thus a (very small) possibility that some of these Trico square bottle washer systems have survived in a (British) Ford of the late 50’s or early 60’s.

Trico washer systems other cars Trico XAW6-2 other cars

 The XK 150 received a different washer system  Jaguar Part Nº C14334 and probably Trico JAW9-2. The bottle, pump and bracket assembly had Jaguar Part Nº C10127/1 or Trico Part Nº 800051. The pump was now located within the glass bottle but the rest was left unchanged. This version (C10127/1) was also used on the various Jaguar Mk 1 versions; the Mk2 switched over to a Lucas electrical windscreen washer version.

Trico XK 150 washer XK 150 washer system Jaguar Part Nº C14334

Trico-Folberth offered  the “XK 150 windscreen washer equipment” also as an aftermarket accessory in the late 50’s: Trico part number XAW9-2 (see photo below) looks fully identical to the above XK 150 version. Or did Jaguar simply choose an already existing standard Trico UK version for their XK 150 series in 1957?

Trico XAW9 system Trico XAW9 box  Trico XAW9 additional hardware XAW9-2 as “aftermarket” kit
  • The glass bottle

Much has been written on the Trico glass bottles for all versions, except for the FHC glass bottle (or “Jar” as Jaguar and Trico called it). It  received Jaguar Part Nº C9184 and Trico Part Nº 800037, a specific Trico UK part number. The bottle does not have “TRICO” moulded into the glass.  Trico UK also offered the square bottle type for (British) Ford cars (as is stated above) probably in an endeaver to increase the production quantity for these bottles as only 3000 bottles just for the Jaguar XK 140 fixed head coupes is hardly an attractive production figure.

The glass bottle for the XK 140 FHC has the following text (sometimes difficult to read) casted on the bottom side: B & Cº Ltd K at the top of a (quarter) circle with a large figure (here “24” but also “3” has been observed) in the middle. At the lower part of the circle on the inside of the bottom we find the indication P 112.

Trico square bottle lettering Text on bottom of square Trico bottle (courtesy: Roger Payne)

This lettering most likely refers to the company Bagley & Co., Ltd. of Knottingley, Yorkshire, England (1898-1962), a company that produced bottles in large quantities  but is also known for its “glass art” (vases, etc). In 1962 it was acquired by the Jackson Brothers (or the Jackson Glass Co.), another local Knottingley firm. The Rockware Glass Co., in turn, took over the Jackson operation in 1964. This company remained in business until 1975.

We also have also seen bottles for the XK 120 and the 140 OTS and DHC (Jaguar Part Nº C5473/2 or Trico Part Nº X.78369) that had the same lettering and the number 858B. But also the Trico glass jar (Jaguar Part Nº C10127/2 and Trico 800042) of the XK 150 washer system had the same lettering B & Cº Ltd  K and the number S124 (?) as can be seen on the photo below.

Trico glass bottle XK 150 B & Co mark Text on bottom of XK 150 Trico glass bottle

Looking at the time line, Trico most likely had Bagley as one of their glass bottle suppliers. Even the fact that the name Bagley disappeared in 1962, does not conflict with this assumption, as by that year Trico was switching over to plastic bottles and Jaguar had switched over to Lucas for the supply of Windscreen Washers in the meantime.

 Trico square jars Other applications of the UK square jar

The XK 140 FHC bottle measures 3¾” (95 mm) width and depth and the total height is 7½” (190 mm) whereas the height to the neck is 6½” (165 mm); the washer fluid capacity according Trico is 0.86 litre.

As Trico uses the indication XAW6 the 6 might well stand for the number of Quarter Pints (6 x 0.142 = 0.852 litre); note that Trico also has other Jars with indication XAW9 and XCAW10 indicating a larger volume. The volume of the XAW9-2 is indicated as 2½ pint, but should be 2¼ if the 9 quarter pints should be correct. But the increase to 2½ might well be done for “commercial” reasons.

The cap of the XAW6-2 measures about 3¼” (83 mm). Note that the bracket for the larger round bottles measure about 5” square, meaning Jaguar could save about 1¼” or 32 mm, probably to create better access to the oil dip stick of the FHC. See also the above advertisement: XAW6-2 “Small Jar type”.

The bottles for the XK 120 and the 140 OTS and DHC had Jaguar Part Nº C5473/2 or Trico Part Nº X.78369 which is a standard Trico USA part carried by Trico UK.

The bottles for the XK 150 had Jaguar Part Nº C10127/2 and Trico 800042.

Trico washer bottle 120 140 Trico Jar X.78369 for XK 120 and 140 (not FHC)
  • The Pump assembly

The Pump including Cover on top of the glass bottle is identical for all XK 120 and XK 140 versions and has Jaguar Part Nº C5473/3 or Trico Part Nº X.82540. The suction tube or Strainer Assembly is also the same for all versions and has Jaguar Part Nº C5498 and Trico Part Nº X.76431/1M.

imagePump, Cover and Strainer XK 120/140 

The pump for the XK 150 (and Mk 1) is slightly different as this unit is positioned within the glass bottle and is fixed to the lid on the top of the pump (instead of the bottom of the pump as per XK 120/140). The pump has Jaguar part number C.10127/3. A similar construction is used on the later Trico plastic windscreen washer systems and the vacuum pump may well be interchangeable.

Trico washer pump XK 150 total view Trico washer pump XK 150 Pump unit for XK 150 (and Mk 1): note the nut on the top of the dome for fixation to the lid.

The lower half of the dome is made of brass. Two types of dome tops have been used by Trico UK for the XK 120 & 140. Both versions are made of high pressure die-cast aluminium;m later domes carry the Trico logo and the following additional text “MADE IN ENGLAND” and “TO CONTROL VALVE”. This is a Trico Folbert UK product evidently. It is evident that the XK 150 dome top is different due to the different location of the pump within the bottle.

Trico pump dome name Upper dome version of Trico UK pump

The upper domes of the Trico UK pump were all smooth, whereas Trico USA offered different upper dome shapes for their pumps. Early pumps had a smooth dome with an cylindrical part on top. Later domes had “stiffening” ribs on the side. Both types are unsuitable as a replacement for an original Jaguar washer pump.

USA Trico washer pump detail  Trico pump dome USA                              Early Trico USA pump with different dome shape.          (Later) Trico USA pumps have ribs.

The pump has a “check valve” at the lower connection to the strainer and the tube connection to the washer jets. This “one way” valve consists of a steel ball in the brass lower pump housing. A second check valve is in the hose pillar part (connecting the washer jet hoses).

Check valve in hose to jets Check valve in hose pillar to washer jets

The “strainer” consists of a ” copper tube with ⅜” – 32 UNEF thread at the top and (sometimes) a filter at the bottom end. For the XAW6-2 washer bottle the length of the strainer tube was about 6½” (or 170 mm).

The complete pump and strainer were fixed to the bottle cap using a ½” – 28 UNEF nut, selflocking washer and plain washer which were screwed to the threaded lower end of the pump house.

There is a small (brass) lid placed over the washer fluid filler opening that can be rotated aside, The (red and black) round Trico label placed on the lid reads “REPLACE YOUR WIPER BLADES ONCE A YEAR”.

Trico filler lid lable Label on filler opening lid

There are different lid types. Some versions have a half circle depression and a “reinforcement rib” running towards the rivet with which the lid is secured to the bottle cap. Other versions are flat in this area and have a full circular depression; this type is seen on both early US as UK washer pumps. XKs (120, 140 and 150) use the (older) flat version, whereas the (later?) stiffened version may have been only used for the combined vacuum/electrical versions (synchronizing the washer function  with the wiper system).

It looks as if the round Trico label is solely intended for the “flat” lid version with the full circular depression. The “stiffened” version is mostly shown with a different larger Trico label (half circle shape), whereby this label is not positioned on the small lid but elsewhere on the large bottle cap.

Trico lid types Trico lid filler opening vers 2            Different lid versions.                                                 Reinforced lid with incorrect label for XKs?
  • The Bracket for the bottle

The Bracket that carries the Trico Windscreen Washer Assembly for the XK 120 and 140 models (except FHC) have Jaguar Part Nº C5473/8 and Trico Part Nº X.78364-IE which  indicates that this is originally a Trico USA product. However, bottle brackets made by Trico UK are normally painted black, where as most Trico USA brackets were Cadmium plated.

The Bracket  is different for the FHC as is the way it is mounted. The bracket has Jaguar Part Nº C9185 or Trico Nº 800075/E, is square and the glass bottle has a tight fit in the bracket. Again, because this part number consists of 6 digits it is a Trico UK specific part. The Bracket is mounted at the LH side of the engine bay just in front of the brake fluid reservoir: only 3 setscrews (3/16 UNF x ½” with nuts and shake proof washers) are used instead of the 5 for the OTS and DHC bracket.

Further investigation learned that there were actually two FHC brackets, whereby the later version had the “Trico” trade mark, the text “Made in England” and a survey of patents stamped on the inside of the rear steel strip.

Trico bracket later version Later FHC bracket C9185 or Trico Nº 800075/E

Whether the change-over coincided with the introduction of a new label (see below) is unclear, but the older labels all have brackets without the “Trico” trademark.

image image

Early XK 140 FHC bracket C9185 and later Trico label for info only.

Two different Trico label versions have been used: the above photos show (left) the early version (text reads: 6 oz. bottle XAW-30) and  (right) the later version which reads only XAW-30 and has an additional line at the bottom of the label (“OVER 20 MILLION TRICO WASHERS SOLD”).

Trico washer solvent was supplied in various ways: initially glass bottles, later plastic bottles and sachets. The reference 6 oz. XAW-30 on the lable refers to the glass (and plastic) bottle content as supplied by Trico UK. Trico USA refered in their catalogues to the WA-30 6 oz. bottle.

Trico 6 oz solvent glass bottle Trico 6 oz solvent plastic bottle
Early glass 6 oz. bottle XAW-30                               Later (1960) plastic 6 oz. bottle
  • Rubber hoses

Two diameters of rubber hoses are used for vacuum and washer fluid. Trico had a large range of rubber hoses in their programme (because of their extensive vacuum wiper motor programme) but the sizes of importance for Jaguar XK washers are:

        1. All rubber” hoses with ID 7/64″ (2.8 mm) for ⅛” (3.2 mm) connections: Trico Nº F.15. Outer diameter of this hose is 15/64″ (6.0 mm).
        2. All rubber” hoses with ID 5/32″ (4.0 mm) for 3/16“ (4.8 mm) connections. Three code numbers have been used for the 3/16“ hose: Trico Nº 618, Trico Nº 846 and later Trico Nº 81846 (converted to 5 digits). Outer diameter of this 3/16“ hose is 5/16″ (8.0 mm).

image image

The Jaguar Parts Catalogue gives a detailed survey of the various tubes used and their position. All vacuum hoses are of the 3/16 “ (4.8 mm) type as is the main washer fluid hose from pump to T connector. The two hoses from the T piece to the washer jets are of the ⅛” (3.2 mm) type. Remember that a vacuum hoses may collapse if the rubber wall isn’t stiff enough: reinforced tubes are preferred but sometimes their (increased) outer diameter may cause problems with the existing rubber grommets, which is why Trico used “all rubber” hoses with a lesser increased wall thickness.

Trico hose length survey XK Survey of hose lengths

There are some problems related to this survey: the ⅛” hose C5472/13 (T-piece to LH Jet) for the XK 140 FHC is apparently 26” long (66 cm), but the same part number is also used for the XK 140 OTS version and there it is indicated as 43” long!

Given the position of the Trico reservoir at the LH side of the engine compartment, and given the position of the T-piece at the end of a 24” long hose from the reservoir plus the fact we are dealing here with the LH Jet, a length of 26” is more than adequate for hose C5472/13 (in fact I found it much too long).

Another problem that remains is that the original lay-out of the tubes behind the instrument panel is difficult to retrieve.

  • The Tee piece 

The T connection (Jaguar Part Nº C5473/6 or Trico Part Nº  X.87223/1) is made of brass and divides the flow of washer fluid from the reservoir to the LH and RH Jet. Jaguar uses Part Nº C5473/6 also in combination with “Tee Connection” Trico Nº X.77689/1, whereby the latter part number is a Trico USA derived number. The main supply hose is 3/16” and the two hoses to the Jets are of the ⅛” type, which translates in a special T piece with unequal branches. Later T-pieces are made of plastic  and the correct (unequal branches) plastic version has Trico UK Part Nº 768523.

image Trico T piece plastic
Trico T-piece X.87223/1 or X.77689/1             Later Trico T- piece 768523
  • The Washer Jet System

The original Washer Jets are well described by e.g. Viart / Payne in their book “XK 140 explored”. These Washer Jets were continued from the XK 120. The chosen threads for jets and housing clearly show the American origin of these Trico windscreen washers as some destine from the pre 1950s so even before the “Unified” era in the USA started.

There are in fact two different Washer Jets assemblies that look similar but have a different hose pillar diameter. The one applied by Jaguar has an 1/8″ diameter and is described hereafter. The other version has a 3/16″ hose pillar diameter and is coded by Trico UK as Part Nº 801894-C. The latter requires different rubber hoses (now all 3/16″) and T-piece (all branches 3/16″: Trico Part Nº X649-1 in brass or Nº 768515 in plastic) .

The chrome plated Trico washer jet assembly  named “Easy-Clean Jets” (with Jaguar Part Nº C5473/4 or Trico Part Nº X.78778-C but later also Trico Nº 801742) is basically built-up from three parts: (1) Main body, (2) Washer Jet and (3) Knurled Button.

image Original washer jet less knurled button
Trico washer exploded view “Exploded view” of the complete washer jet system
Trico washer jets and elongation tubes Washer jets and extension tubes in XAW9-2 kit
    • The Jet Body

The main jet body including the hose connection and threaded lower part, used a bended steel piece that acts as a nut to install the complete washer jet to the car. This nut (“wing nut” according Trico) has Trico Part Nº 76624). Trico (USA) part number for the main body is 78779-3C.  Thread for the fixation of the body to the car is National Extra Fine 5/16 -32 NEF or later UNEF. A rubber washer (Jaguar C5497 or Trico 75172) is placed between the jet housing and the car This is a 1.5 mm flat rubber washer with 3/16” or 8 mm ID and 5/8” or 16 mm OD .

Trico washer rubber Rubber washer Trico 75172
    • The washer jet itself

The washer jet (including knurled button) with Jaguar Part Nº C5495 or Trico 81600-C, which is screwed in the main jet body, has a tiny slit/opening at the hexagon end which allows the washer fluid to be sprayed in one specific direction, once the closing button is in place. The special thread of the washer jet (and internal thread of the washer body) is apparently National Special Nº 8-40 NS or later UNS (about Ø 4.2 x 0.64 mm).

The below part of the washer jet has Trico Part Nº 81151-1C and is used both by Trico USA and Trico UK.

image Washer jet, shown here without knurled button

The below shown Trico jet with the round spray hole in the centre of the hexagon part, fits perfectly in the main jet housing and is closed with a different button. Trico USA assigned Part Nº 86022C to this washer jet (or “nozzle”) and positions it as a full alternative for Trico UK washer jet Nº 81600-C using Trico USA Part Nº AW-128 for both alternatives. Some XK’s may have switched over to this US alternative (like mine).

image image Trico USA 86022C
    • The knurled button of the jet

The jet is closed with a knurled Button (Jaguar Part Nº C5499 or Trico Nº 81153-1C) which screws into the jet; thread is National Fine NF10-32 (comes close to 2BA). The button thread has two flats to allow fluid to flow to the opening. This Button can be removed for cleaning the jet opening (“Easy Clean” jets). There is a small sealing ring between de button and the jet (Jaguar Nº C5496 or Trico Nº 81635) . There are buttons with and without the Trico brand logo, but apparently the original buttons did not have that Trico logo.

Trico knurled button Knurled button and sealing ring
  • Alternative (contemporary and later) Trico washer jet assemblies

Although BMC mainly used washer equipment from Tudor they applied a similar Trico solution for some of their high-end brands in the late 50’s and early 60’s like e.g. MG ZA/ZB series, Riley and Wolseley cars. These washers however had a different, smaller washer housing: the cylindrical and hexagon part of the main body have different  dimensions compared with the Jaguar solution. The washer housing was originally fixed to the body with “wing nuts” instead of hexagon nuts. The washer jet itself is identical to the Jaguar version (Trico Nº 81600-C ; here with Trico logo).

image BMC used Trico for their  “high-end” brands

Other Trico washer jet assemblies are available, but they have either hexagonal or conical bodies in which the jet itself is screwed (see photos below). They are not particularly suited as a replacement for the Jaguar XK windscreen washers if originality is required.

image Unknown version with smaller hexagon housing

Trico washer 1970s   Trico 1970 washer Trico 802516-C (1970s)

Trico also delivered “Twin Jets” to be used in a central position in front of the windshield. An earlier Trico version was coded 801743 C and used two “knurled buttons” (Jaguar Part Nº C5499 or Trico Nº 81153-1C). The introduction of this version probably dates from the mid 60’s (photo below left). A later (70’s) introduction was Trico Twin Jet 803274 C (photo below right) but this version doesn’t have the “knurled buttons” as used for the earlier Jaguar XK’s.

Trico twin jet 801743 Trico twin jet 803274 C 801743  & 803274
  • The Control Button

The Control Button (when pushed) activates the vacuum in the system and when released the washer jets spray washer fluid to the windscreen. Trico apparently made a special version for Jaguar (and possibly some other high-end brands) because of the (thick) wooden instrument panel this button was built in.

There are many types of Control Buttons in the Trico programme, with a split-up in two main types: (1) controls with parallel hose connections and (2) controls with one 90° hose connection. There are indications that the “90° controls” are the oldest (USA 1940’s onwards) and were still available in 1980. The “parallel controls” may have been a Trico UK development and were (relatively) short-lived but still referred to in 1960.

The length of the button also varies: the majority of the Trico Washer programme uses Controls with very short buttons that cannot be used for the (thick) Jaguar XK instrument panels. There are three versions with a longer chrome plated button and these are the ones used in XK’s: the longest one (32 mm) is of the “parallel”, but there is also the same length available in the “90°” controls type. and finally a shorter one (24 mm) iof the “90°” controls type as well. These buttons are nowadays a rare find.

The “long” button version of the “90° connection” category has a total length from (back of the) nut to end of button of about 24 mm. This one fits the XK dashboard and the majority of the XK 120 and 140 versions have this button type. This control  has (most likely) Jaguar Part Nº C5472/7 or Trico Nº 900306, which means UK specific.

Trico control button 90 degree 24 mm long Control Button Trico 900306 (or 900106)

Note: the XK 120 DHC and FHC may have had a different Control Assembly: although the Jaguar Part Nº C5472/7 was continued from the early XK 120 down to the last XK 150, the Trico part Nº for the XK 120 was 900106 (whereas the XK 140 had 900306). We should, however, not exclude an error in the Jaguar Spare Parts Catalogue.

The below Control Button of the “90°” type has a total button length  measured from the (back of the) nut to the end of the button of about 32 mm (1¼ inch). Product data are not knownTrico control button 90 degree, but the button seems fully identical to the version described hereafter.

Trico control button 90 long 32 mm  long control button “90°” type

The below Control Button of the “parallel” type has a total button length  measured from the (back of the) nut to the end of the button of about 32 mm (1¼ inch). This version is possibly related to the Trico 900306 version (see photo above). Product data are not knownTrico control button 90 degree. This version has also been seen on XK dashboards, but its origin and originality remains unclear.

image 32 mm long control button parallel type.

Easier to find is the shorter Trico version of the parallel type, which uses the same body as the above version. However, it doesn’t fit in the Jaguar dashboard.  This one is “Made in England” and is used on various “high end” BMC cars like MG, Riley and Wolseley. This product had Trico Part Nº 900255-C, indicating it was indeed a UK specific product. The length from (back of the) nut to end of button is about 14 mm.

imageimage Trico 900255-C is too short

In the category of control buttons with a 90° hose connection, different versions are offered (besides the aforementioned versons with a longer button). A shorter version with a length of about 14 mm has Trico Part Nº X.77680-C and was made by both Trico USA (Part Nº 77680-C from the 1940’s onwards) and Trico UK. This Control Button is installed in a dashboard using a chrome nut (Trico 77679-C) and a washer (Trico 2322J). This version is too short for the XK dashboard.

imageimage  Trico X.77680-C; too short
  • The Check Valve

From September 1955 onwards XK140s received a brass Check Valve which was installed in the rubber hose from the inlet manifold to the Control Button. The check valve or “non-return” valve secures that vacuum remains in the washer system (when the engine stops) and the washer jets can do their job (for a short period though). The Check Valve has Jaguar Part Nº C11491 or Trico Part Nº 900292 (UK specific). The original item is apparently rare nowadays and modern replacements are often used instead.

For the XK 150 the Check Valve became integrated in the inlet manifold adaptor: Jaguar Part Nº C13570 or C14715 and thus was no longer a separate item as with the XK 140.

image Original Brass Trico check valve?
  • The Inlet Manifold Adaptor

Vacuum is drawn from the Inlet Manifold via a rubber hose connected to a  “Connector” or Manifold Adaptor screwed in the manifold. This Adaptor initially had Jaguar Part Nº C5473/5 (taken over from the XK 120) and from September 1955 onwards C11490 with Trico Part Nº 770750 and 770793 respectively. This adaptor is screwed in the manifold: thread is ⅛”-28 BSP.

Trico inlet manifold adaptor Early inlet manifod adaptor Trico 770750

The XK 150 had the Check Valve integrated with the inlet manifold adaptor: Jaguar Part Nº C13570 or C14715 .

Lucas “Sports” Coil

Lucas “Sports Coils”


Many Jaguar XK’s (as many other British sports cars of the 50’s and 60’s) often had a Lucas Sports Coil of the SA12 type installed as an aftermarket accessory, in an attempt to (further) improve the car’s performance.

Sports coil SA 12 add May 1960  Lucas SA12 Sports Coil advertisement 1960

Although Porter in his book “Original Jaguar XK” refers to this coil as “a 140/150 sports coil” it actually never was available as a Works Option from Jaguar. And as far as I know, none of the British sports cars ever had a Lucas Sports Coil as a factory standard item.

Further investigating the subject of “Lucas sports coils” learned that there are in fact 4 different generations of these sports coils, whereby the so-called “Red Top” SA12 version is apparently the most attractive version.

Why a “Sports Coil”?

An ignition coil is in fact a transformer with about a 100 to 1 ratio between secondary windings (consisting of 6,000 to 20,000 turns) and primary windings (normally about 300 turns). The output voltage will therefore be e.g. 100 times greater than the input voltage.

When the contact points are closed the primary winding of the coil is connected to the battery and draws an electrical current of about 4 amps. The coil core is in fact an electromagnet with a magnetic field induced by the current flowing in the primary winding. When the points open to break the contact, the primary current must stop flowing and the magnetic field in the transformer will collapse. The collapsing magnetic field forces the current to continue flowing in the same direction and that current will charge the capacitor in the distributor. This raises the capacitor voltage momentarily to about 300 Volts, at which time this high voltage stops the current. The current then reverses direction, being driven backward by the high voltage at the capacitor. The initial 300 V spike in the primary winding will induce an output in the secondary winding of e.g. 30 kV (depending on the aforementioned winding ratio).

What type of ignition coil is required for a particular engine depends on the specific requirements of that engine: aspects like C.R. (compression ratio), the chosen sparkplug gaps, etc. have an impact on the required ignition voltage for the plugs to produce an optimum spark. In addition we should keep in mind that ignition coils are strongly affected by the contact breaker, particularly at high speeds, meaning that the contact breaker should be of the right quality if the coil has to deliver top performance. On a six cylinder engine running at e.g. 4000 revolutions per minute the contact breaker has to make and break some 12000 times per minute. At each make and break a starting current (commencing at 4 Amps or so and falling away to about 1.5 Amp as speed increases) has to pass across the points without appreciable voltage drop, if the coil is to build up a maximum spark voltage during the very brief time the contacts are closed.

Standard Lucas coils normally deliver an ignition voltage of 20 to 30 kV. A “High Performance” coil and more in particular a “Sports Coil” provides an increased voltage of about 40kV or higher, because of the different relation between the number of windings of the primary and secondary windings.

Two different manufacturing methods over the years

Regarding the manufacturing method of the coil housing or “can” we see a clear split-up in the earlier “assembled” housings made of (zinc plated) steel with soldered seams and bottom versus the later aluminium cans made via a process called “cold impact extrusion”, a method also used for the manufacturing of large capacitors. Lucas introduced this process around 1950 also for the SA type of Sports Coil. Note the “expansion” groove at the lower part of the aluminium cans, which is made to prevent the can to burst in case of an excessive overheating of the coil. If the coil expands an internal safety mechanism will cut the voltage supply and  prevent any further temperature rise of the coil.

Lucas coil expansion groove Expansion groove in SA type aluminium can

Later Lucas branded aluminium cans no longer have this expansion groove. There are more complaints reported of coil “decapitation” due to thermal problems with these later coils, whereby the coil normally bursts at the top and the oil will spread throughout the engine compartment (see photo below).

Lucas DLB 101 exploded 1 Lucas DLB101 exploded 2

This is what might happen with an overheated coil (later type) without an “expansion groove”.

1. Lucas HS type Sports Coil from  late 1930s

Lucas catalogue 1937 HS 12 Lucas catalogue 300E from 1937

This first generation Sports Coils coded HS was developed by Lucas as early as 1937 in a 6 Volt and 12 Volt version. It started as a black coated version with a brown Bakelite top. It may have been not available for a number of years until 1950 when it became available in a grey painted housing. We refer for this to the Lucas advertisement of April 1950 introducing the new grey coloured Sports Coil in which Lucas states: “Motorists will welcome back the Lucas Sports Coil”. A survey:

1.1 First version HS coil

The black HS6 and HS12 coil had a brass Lucas type plate, which was fixed to the clamp with 2 screws. All HS coils are marked SW (ignition SWitch) and CB (Contact Breaker points) for the 12 Volt circuit connection. The Lucas part number was 406996 for the 12 V version and 406997 for the 6 Volt version. These part numbers remained unchanged for all HS coils although several development changes took place.

The text on the brass plate reads: MODEL HS12, TYPE L-0 12V ER 45038A but other (pre-war) plates refer to the Lucas part number 406996 for the HS12. Lucas catalogues indicate that coil 45038 has been replaced by coil 45058 in the early 50’s. ER stands for Earth Return meaning no separate earth connection but the can itselfs acts as connection to earth. The type number of the HS6 version is 45037A.

Lucas HS12 bakelite top  image   Lucas HS12 type # 45038 and part # 406996
Lucas HS12 type plate 1938 Coil HS12 type plate
Early Lucas HS12 Sports Coils with brass type plates

1.2  Second version HS coil

Early 1950 saw the introduction of a grey-brown painted HS coil, initially with a black metal plate fixed with 2 slotted CSK screws. The housing was painted in grey-brown which Lucas called “polychromatic brown” (like the colour “polychromatic grey”, a colour they used for many products like the HF1748 horns). This coil was available in both 6V and 12V.

The part number of this coil versions remained unchanged (see 1.1)

image Advertisement April 1950
Lucas HS12 second version complete Lucas HS12 second version label HS12 12V ER

1.3 Third version HS coil

Later (but still in the early 50s) this coil had the label glued to the coil clamp. The label was mainly aluminium coloured with a black band at the bottom. Code numbers changed for unknown reasons from 5 to 6 digits:

  • Lucas HS6 Type L-0     45037A     Part # 406997
  • Lucas HS12 Type L-0   45038A     Part # 406996

image image

Lucas 6 Volt Sports Coil. Model HS6, Type L-O, Lucas part number 406997 with printed label.

2. The SA series Sports Coil from early 50s

Around 1955 a second generation with a larger diameter aluminium can and different Bakelite top was introduced which was commercially named SA. This coil was still manufactured until the end of the 1970s.

Lucas SA Sports Coils can be easily recognised by their particular colour of the top part (red-brawn: these coils are also called “Red-tops”) and the special moulded Nut 422792 for the screwed connection of the HT cable to the central contact of the distributor cap; this nut differs from the one used on all other Lucas coils with a similar connection type.

Lucas Coil Nut Special SA coil nut 422792

The diameter of Sports Coils is with 61 mm about 3 mm larger than a standard (LA or HA) coil. The clamp (or “Saddle” as Lucas calls it) is therefore also special and has part number 423947.

image  November 1957 advertisement

Two versions have been made:

  • Type number SA12 with part number 45058A to M for the 12 Volt version.
  • Type number SA6 with part number 45065A for the 6 Volt version.

2.1 SA12 Sports Coils

Three different 12V connections have been applied by Lucas:

2.1.1  The early 12 Volt versions (coded 45058A to E) have screw posts and two nuts (2BA) for the 12 Volt wires coded 166043. These coils are marked SW (ignition SWitch) and CB (Contact Breaker points).

image image image_thumb.png

2.1.2  Later 12V Coil versions starting from suffix F (about  December 1959) were supplied with one “LUCAR” single connector (54190096) and one double connector (54190108) that could be installed on the two (2BA) studs using the existing nuts (still leaving the possibility to use this coil on older cars with eyelets). This was done because many manufacturers had meanwhile switched over to the LUCAR kind of connector for their car production. These coils were still marked SW and CB.

Lucas SA 12 version 2 Second version with optional LUCAR connections

2.1.3  Final 12V versions with suffix K to M (commencing 1968 running till 1978) had double LUCAR connectors riveted on the top, which no longer allowed the use of eyelet connectors. At the same time the marks SW and CB were replaced by + and – also because most cars had meanwhile switched from positive ground to negative ground.

image image image

2.2 Lucas SA6 Sports Coils

Below some examples of the 6V version, in this case a later version with double (riveted) Lucar connectors.

image image

2.3  Lucas Overseas Production

Lucas manufactured in the various parts of the Commonwealth for the “Overseas” markets. In Australia and New Zealand local manufacturing of Sports Coils started in the 50’s or 60’s.

In Australia a special version of the SA type of sports coil was manufactured in the 1960s. It was coded SH12 and the part number was 45088A. When we look at the construction of this coil, the involvement of Lucas UK was evident: apart from the formal Lucas part number for this Australian product, the product made use of a copy of the early “red top” (including the special moulded nut 422792 of the british SA series) although most likely with a different outer diameter for the top allowing the use of an already locally manufactured aluminium can of the HA type (probably also the reason to call this coil type SH and not SA). A specific Australian label was added as was the local packaging.

Lucas SH12 coil Aus box Australian made SH12 coil, manufactured Sept 63

Lucas SH12 Aus red top Lucas SH12 Aus type & date

In the 1970s Lucas New Zealand manufactured a Sports Coil with type number SA12 for their home market. Lucas part number was 63206301. This was based however on the standard coil (which has a smaller diameter than the SA12 as manufactured by Lucas UK).

Lucas SA12 New Zealand 1 SA12 Sports coil made by Lucas New Zealand

Furthermore it had a black top in stead of the famous red top and the Lucar double contacts as well as the lettering (+ and – ) was in line with the final SA12 production in the UK (see above). Also the label was completely different from the SA12 production in the UK. The performance data of this version are not known.

Lucas SA12 New Zealand 3 Lucas SA12 New Zealand 2


2.4 Lucas High Energy Coils (HE6 and HE12)

An additional version has to be mentioned here which was not called a Sports Coil, but offered identical advantages. The High Energy Coil was offered in 6 and 12 Volts from the early 1950’s as an accessory. It is mentioned in the 1953 Lucas Catalogue of Quality Electrical Equipment. This fluid cooled coil has a die-casted Aluminium housing (heat sink) and a unique bracket with the Lucas logo in blue. Note the top that is identical to the SA Sports Coil with a screw-in type high tension connector and screw posts for the primary terminals.

Lucas HE12 complete Lucas High Efficiency Coil HE12

3. PA series “High Power” Sports Coils from late 50s

Introduced in late 50’s or early 60’s, this type of sports coil used the standard housing of the HA type High Performance Coils and not the (larger) housing of the SA type of sports coils. In addition it no longer carried the HT lead connection by means of a “moulded nut and split washer” but changed over to a “screw-in” connection for the HT cable to the distributor cap. The PA series were part of the Lucas range, not replacing but in addition to the SA series over the period 1960 – 1980.

Lucas issued a leaflet “Instructions for fitting sports ignition coils models PA6 (6 volt) and PA12 (12 volt) export only, SA6 (6 volt) and SA12 (12 volt) home market which might indicate the relation between the two product ranges. The reason for this might be that the non-UK (read “non-Lucas”) car industry used HT cables connected by means of a system whereby the (core of the) cable was screwed into a thin threaded stud. Due to the dominant position of Lucas in the UK it could continue the SA series with the “moulded nut and split washer” connection.

  • Sports Coil fluid cooled 12V PA12  Part # 45118
  • Sports Coil fluid cooled 6V PA6 Part # 45119
image PA6 Sports Coil Lucas 45119

4. The SP type Super Energy Sports Coil from late 70s

A fourth generation Sports coil (also known as the Gold Sports coil) was introduced around 1978 with the type code SP. The commercial code was:

  • DLB 105 for the standard Super Energy Sports Coil
  • DLB 110 for the “ballasted” version of the same coil (50% lower resistance of the primary windings)

There are (at least) three different versions of this coil.

4.1 The SP12 Super Energy Sports Coil with Silver label (late 70s to late 80s)

Early coils had a white top with double LUCAR connections riveted to the top. The SP12 coil had Lucas part number 45288A (at least initially) and had a silver label with “12V Super Energy Sports Coil” printed. Note that these early SP12 versions had an “expansion” rim at the lower end of the housing, in line with the housing of the SA series.

image Earlier SP12 45288A 1980

4.2 The SP12 Super Energy Sports Coil with Black label (late 1980s)

A later version of the 1980s (now also named DLB105-B) with part number 45341A had a white top, but now with a black label positioned on the clamp and no longer on the housing above the clamp. The abbreviation B.Y.S. (manufacturer code?) was added in the numbers stamped on the bottom of the coil. These coils went back to the screwed Lucas low volt terminals which allowed to use this coil also for the classic eyelet connections. These coils have most likely been manufactured from late 1980s till about 1996 when Lucas was sold to a US company.

image imageimage
B.Y.S SP12 45341A from 1987

4.3 The SP12 Super Energy Sports Coil with Green label (since September 2004)

Following the return of “Lucas Electrical” in the UK market the DLB105 / SP12 “Gold” sports coil was continued, however with  a green Lucas label on the coil clamp.


Probably the most recent version is a 40 kV Sports Coil made with a black top and with removable “Lucar” connectors, opening the possibility to have eyelet connections as well. Also note that the clamp has now “open” mounting holes.


Checking a Sports Coil

Start by checking the resistance of the primary winding. Whereas about 3.2 ohms is standard for an un-ballasted ignition system, about 1.5 Ω is standard for the ballasted ignition system, but the primary coil resistance of a Sports Coil should be 2.5 to 2.7 Ω which is somewhat lower than that of standard coils. The secondary coil windings have a much higher resistance.

Coil type

Primary resistance Ω

Secondary resistanceΩ

Standard Coil Q-12



Standard Coil LA-12



Sports Coil SA-12



Sports Coil SP-12



Overview of Ignition data for XKs

Note: all data in this overview are given in crank degrees and crank rpm.

The following information has been gathered from various sources (both Jaguar and Lucas), but the available information is at times unclear or confusing. Therefore the data should be regarded as “additional help” and not as the ”absolute truth”.

Jaguar used Lucas distributors for the engine of the XK 120, 140 and 150 (and of course for the Saloons of that era). For this overview to types of distributors are of interest:

  • DVX(H)6A distributors for XK120 and XK140.
  • DMBZ6A distributors for XK150.

image image

Note the different lower aluminium housing of the DVX(H)6A (left) in comparison to the DMBZ6A distributor (right).

The difference between the distributors for the (early) XK 120  and 140 is mainly in the cap with horizontal spark plug cables for the XK 120 (up to 1953, recognisable in the letter H in DVXH6A) whereas later XK 120 and 140 distributors had vertical spark plug cables. A good example of that difference is the Lucas 40199 distributor which was used both in the XK 120 and 140: the XK 120 used the 40199A to D with type indication DVXH6A and the XK 140 had the 40199E with type indication DVX6A. The only real difference between the two being the distributor cap:  415708 for the XK 120 and 407043 for the XK 140. The XK 150 distributors of the DMBZ6A type are totally different from the DVX(H)6A types .

The surveys below also mention an E.C.M. curve which in fact describes the ignition advance from idle to maximum allowed r.p.m. as indicated by the manufacturer. There is a lot of discussion about the meaning of the term ECM as Lucas used in all of their ignition data.

In the Lucas “Overseas Technical Correspondence Course” Section 3 “Coil Ignition” Part 2 the following is explained:

Engine Curve: “In building up the many different advance curves required by the engine manufacturers, we operate from a curve taken from the engine test which shows the degrees of advance required at different engine speeds and loads.”

We may assume  from this that Lucas was confronted with  many different  Engine Curve Models (ECM) and started to build up a “library of ECM’s” giving them specific numbers.

Lucas ECM surveys


Ignition data for XK 120 engines


Ignition data for XK 140 engines


Ignition data for XK 150 engines


Original fan belt Jaguar XK

1. Introduction

The precise size and type of the fan belt for a particular Jaguar XK is often very hard to determine and the information given by many suppliers is confusing or at times even misleading. But if you use your existing belt as an example for a new one, it is most likely that the original fan belt on your engine has already been replaced (several times). So what was the original fan belt like?

To complicate the problem of finding the correct belt for the Jaguar XK even more, fan belts have been (and still partly are) developed and manufactured according different (inter)national standards. The most important ones are BS3790 (or an earlier version of that standard) in the UK, the “Standard for Light-duty or Fractional-horsepower V-belts” of the Rubber Manufacturers Association RMA in the USA and the German DIN 2215 standard for Classical V-belts. Today all V-belts are ISO standardized and practically all manufacturers in all countries adhere to these standards. But unfortunately this does not help as the original 1950s fan belt dimensions have been modified into “something close” but certainly not identical.

Early Jaguar XK 120s initially used a Dunlop  ¾” (19 mm) wide 32° V-angle belt type. Around 1952 the length of the belt changed but otherwise remained identical. With the arrival of the XK 140 in 1954 the fan belt became narrower with a width of only 13/32” (10.3 mm) and an angle of 40°, which version was continued for the XK 150 until 1959 when a wider belt type was introduced with a width of 0.526” (13.4 mm) and 40° angle which changed later to ½” (12.7 mm) 40° belt for standardization reasons.

Fan belt XK 140 Original 1950s fan belt on XK 140

Belts with the original widths and 32° V-angle for the early 120s are no longer manufactured or supplied but belts with a 36° V-angle are still available and fit without problem. Wider V-angles like 40° as a replacement for the 32° V-angle belt are widely available but will have some effect on e.g. the correct length (so care is required when using these modern belts). “Notched” belts are a development that started in the late 50s and have been applied on the last version of XK 150s.

On XK engines the fan belt is driven by the crankshaft pulley and runs over the water-pump and generator (dynamo) pulley. The required size, type and length of a belt is determined by (amongst others) the width of the belt type and the individual diameters of the 3 pulleys. Any modification to one of the pulleys introduces the necessity to change the fan belt dimensions. The information given below tries to highlight these changes and to provide information on the required belt per XK type. Please keep in mind that (1) the recommended fan belt dimensions relate to the original situation and furthermore (2) differences in dimension are possible per standard, brand or manufacturer: therefore a ± 10 mm tolerance on the length indication should be kept in mind.

Factory assembled engines most likely had Dunlop fan belts as standard equipment. Note that fan belt dimensions given hereafter refer to Dunlop manufactured belts as much as possible. Other (contemporary) original fan belts, recommended by the manufacturer for this particular type of car, may deviate from these (Dunlop) dimensions: when available these dimensions have been included in the survey of alternative/replacement belts.

2. Jaguar XK 120 fan belts

2.1 Early Jaguar XK 120 engines from W1001 up to W5464 (July 1952) with crankshaft pulley C2469 (4¼“ or 108 mm outer diameter) used pulley C2246 (6“ or 152 mm outer diameter) on the (round hub) water pump with the cast 5 blade fan and a cast iron pulley C2579 on the C45PVS generator (3½ ” or 89 mm outer diameter). The fan belt was coded C2240. 


Top width

Belt height


Inner circumf.

Outer circumf.


3/4” (19 mm)

½” (12.7 mm)


37 1/2 ” (956 mm) 

  40 3/4” (1036 mm)

Replacement belts:

  • An original belt can sometimes be found at auctions or auto-jumbles, but after 50 years of degradation the quality should be thoroughly checked. However, carefully stored fan belts might do the job for several thousands of miles (but always take a spare one with you). Examples of original belts:
    • Dunlop D305 (see above)
    • Ferodo V340  (W :13/16″ (20.6 mm); IC 37 43/64″ (957 mm); OC 40 13/16 (1037 mm)
    • Raybestos R330
    • John Bull V177 
    • B.F. Goodrich 38
  • The Gates TR24400 Green Stripe Truck & Bus series (or equivalent from different brands) is a ¾” (19mm) wide belt with a 36° angle and an outside length of 40⅝” (1030 mm). As the belt-width (19 m) is slightly less than the original belt (20.6 mm) the somewhat shorter length (7 mm) will be compensated.
  • If not the “next in size” belt Gates TR24403 with an outside length of 1040 mm might be an option.
  • An interesting candidate with the correct width comes from a different source: the old German ‘Klassischer Keilriemen’ version according DIN 2215/ISO 4184. Although the 20 mm version will be (has been?) phased out, several 20 mm wide belts (with a 12.5 mm correct height) are still available on the market. Example: 20 x 950 Li with an inside length of 950 mm. According the DIN2215 standard the outside length is about 80 mm longer than the inside length meaning La = 1030 mm and the “effective” length Ld = 1000 mm. The V-angle is however 40°, but this belt may fit depending on the adjustability of the generator and the appearance comes very close to the original 13/16″ belt type.


Please note that the Jaguar Mk IV and Mark VII used a similar pulley, part number C1076, however with a 3¾” or 95 mm diameter. These larger pulleys may have been used as a replacement on XK 120 engines and will affect the required length of the fan belt. So check the part number of the pulley which is stamped in the casting between the vanes!

2.2 There is much confusion about the exact fan belt dimensions of the later Jaguar XK 120s from engine number W5465 (July 1952 till end of production). This engine still had the same crankshaft and generator pulley but the water-pump pulley had changed: this much smaller pulley (102 mm or 4” outer diameter) had been integrated with the water pump hub and the combination was coded C5054. There was a 4 bolt flange for the new 6 blade fabricated aluminium fan. The new shorter fan belt was coded C5056.


Top width

Belt height


Inner circumf.

Outer circumf.


¾” (19 mm)

½”(12.7 mm)


36.66”  (930 mm)

39.41” ( 1001 mm)


Replacement belts:

  • Original belts can sometimes be found at auctions or auto-jumbles, but after 50 years of degradation the quality should be thoroughly checked. Examples:

Ferodo V144 Ferodo V144 packaging

    • Dunlop D355 see photo below
    • Ferodo V144: (.75” W x .44 H x 39.41” OC x 36″ IC x 32°); see photos above
    • Raybestos R265 
    • Mintex TK339 (unconfirmed)
    • John Bull V516: (47/64” W x 15/32” H x 37 1/16” IC x 32°)
    • Quinton Hazell DB322
    • Gates Vulco V-belt 500 (23/32″ W x 23/32″ H x 39¼ ” OC x 32°)
 Dunlop D355                                   Original Dunlop D 355 packaging                  Original Gates Vulco 500 fan belt
  • Gates offered a  23/32″ (18.2 mm) fan belt, claiming this suited the Mk VII, XK 120 and XK 140 in the period 1950 – 1956. This survey is incorrect as this fan belt only suit some XK 120s and Mk VIIs with the C.5060 belt. The length of the Gates belt is 39¼ ” which is close to the Ferodo V144 with 39.41″.
  • There seems to be no properly fitting ¾” (19 mm) Gates Green Stripe Truck & Bus series 36° belt, but Gates TR24379 might come close with an outside length of 38½” (980 mm) which is only 14 mm too short, provided the generator can be sufficient adjusted towards the block.
  • We noticed that some Jaguar part suppliers provide the TR24400 also in this case, which however is with 57 mm by far too long and cannot be recommended.
  • The B36 belt (from various suppliers like Gates Hi-Power® II) may fit because, although with a width of 21/31” (17 mm), it has the correct outside length of 39” or 990 mm. It will run deeper in the 32° V-groove which again is somewhat compensated by the wider V-angle of 36°.

2.3 There are sources mentioning that some very late XK120s (and Mk VIIs) may have been executed with an 8 blade fan and the pulleys of the XK140. The required fan belt is described in the following chapter.

3. Jaguar XK 140 fan belts

3.1 Jaguar had been experimenting with narrow belts on the XK 120 C-type to minimize power losses in the “auxiliary” engine parts. The width and angle of the belt changed therefore with the introduction of the XK 140: a 40° V-angle belt instead of the former 32° V-angle and a much narrower type of about 10 mm versus the much wider 19 to 20 mm of the XK 120. The crankshaft pulley had changed (now C7275) with a 5” or 127 mm OD, the water-pump pulley was new (C7644) with a 5¼” or 134 mm OD, as was the dynamo pulley (C7427) with a 3½” or 90 mm outer diameter. All XK 140s over the entire production run had the same fan belt which was coded C7898.


Top width

Belt height


Inner circumf.

Outer circumf.


13/32”(10.3 mm)

11/32”(8.7 mm)


38 5/16” (973 mm)

40 15/32”(1030 mm)

Ferodo V917 in box orange image Early (orange) branded FEROGRIP and later (red) FERODO box

Replacement belts:

  • Original belts can sometimes be found at auctions or auto-jumbles, but thoroughly check their quality. Some examples:
    • Ferodo V917 (dimensions see above)
    • Raybestos R80 (dimensions as above)
    • Quinton Hazell DB808
    • Dunlop D333
    • John Bull V529  (3/8” W x 5/16” H x 38 ¼ “ IC x 40°)
    • B.F. Goodrich 1014
    • Goodyear 1014 (13T412)
  • The 36° angle Gates 7400 XL belt seems a good candidate with a width of ⅜” or 9.5 mm and an outside length of 40⅝” or 1030 mm. This belt is “notched” so not entirely original.


  • Because these belts are actually somewhat wider than their code indicates and rise somewhat out of the groove, the Gates 7400 belt could turn-out to be too short. Gates recommends a Gates 7410 XL “notched”belt (also 36° angle) with an outside length of 41⅝”or 1055 mm as a replacement for Jaguar code C7898.
  • A modern 40° angle generic belt type AVX10x1035 could also do the job and is available from various manufacturers, however this is “notched” belt.
  • Another modern version is the SPZ1012 with an inside length of 974mm and an outside length 1025mm. This belt has the correct belt height of 8mm. If this fan belt is too short the next longer version SPZ1024 will fit with inside length 986 mm and outside length 1037 mm.
  • The German Classic belt type 10 x 1000Li is another possibility although the height of this belt is only 6 mm (instead of 8 mm for the original version). Outside length is La = Li + 38 mm for this belt type, meaning outside length is 1038 mm (instead of the original 1030 mm).

4. Jaguar XK 150 fan belts

4.1 Early XK 150s (with engine number to V1597; about September 1957) continued to use the XK 140 fan belt C7898. Crankshaft pulley was still C7275 of the XK 140 engine, as was the water-pump pulley (C7644) and the dynamo pulley (C7427).


Top width

Belt height


Inner circumf.

Outer circumf.


13/32”(10.3 mm)

11/32”(8.7 mm)


385/16” (973 mm)

4015/32”(1030 mm)

Replacement belts:
  • See previous chapter on XK 140 fan belts.

4.2 The second belt type was used for XK 150 standard engines from number V1598 to V5732 and “SE” engine number VS1001 to VS1522. The somewhat shorter fan belt was now coded C13595/1. Jaguar had increased the speed of the dynamo by mounting a new pulley C13594 with a reduced diameter (from 3½ to 3” or about 76 mm). The crankshaft pulley remained C7275 and the water-pump pulley C7644. As these two pulleys remained unchanged, fan belt C13595/1 is still a 13/32” (10.3 mm) wide and 40° V-angle belt. Please note that some manufacturers make no difference between fan belt C7898 and C13595/1.

The Jaguar Mark 2 2.4 litre had a similar change involving a new pulley with reduced diameter (in order to increase the speed of the dynamo). The 2.4 litre pulley (Jaguar C.15592) , however, has a diameter of 3⅜” or 86 mm and should not be used because fan belt C.13595/1 will not fit.


Top width

Belt height


Inner circumf.

Outer circumf.


13/32” (10.3 mm)

11/32”(8.7 mm)


38¼” (960 mm)

39¾” (1010 mm)

Fan belt C13595 XK 150  Jaguar C15595

Replacement belts:

  • An original belt can sometimes be found, but thoroughly check its quality. Examples are:
    • Ferodo V904 (see above)
    • Goodyear 476 (unconfirmed)
    • Goodyear 1173 (13T391)
    • Quinton Hazell DB800 (dimensions 1016 La x 9.5; also incorrect reference to XK 140)
    • Dunlop D322
  • The Gates 6275MC belt seems a good candidate with a width of ⅜”or 9.5 mm and an outside length of 39⅞” or 1013 mm.
  • Mintex WFT400 is apparently identical to Gates 6275MC.
  • Modern 40° V-angle types of belts are coded AVX10x1025 may fit, but are teethed or notched.
Fan belt QH DB800 Perfect Original QH fan belt DB800

4.3 The third belt type was introduced in November 1958 from 3.4 litre engine number V5733 and VS1523 and also used for all 3.8 litre engines from engine numbers VA1001 and VAS1001 onwards. A wider belt was introduced and this required all pulleys to be changed although their diameters remained the same and thus the outside length of the fan belt remained the same (1015 mm). This was in fact for the first time a “notched” type of fan belt on Jaguars (initially indicated by most suppliers with suffix N). The new water-pump pulley was coded C14588, the crankshaft pulley was now C14589 and finally the dynamo pulley C14590 (the fact that these parts have sequential code numbers may indicate that the Jaguar development department changed the complete belt system in one operation). Jaguar initially introduced a 0.526“ (13.4 mm) wide and 40° V-angle belt type coded C14535/1. However, some years later this belt type had been changed (or standardized?) to a ½” (12.7 mm) version with an inside length of 37.08” or 942 mm and an outside length of 39.78” or 1010 mm.


Top width

Belt height


Inner circumf.

Outer circumf.


0.526“ (13.4mm)

27/64” (10.7mm)


3711/32” (949 mm)

40” (1016 mm)

Replacement belts:

An original belt can sometimes be found, but thoroughly check its quality. Examples:

  • BMLC MOWOG 13H1840 
  • Ferodo V4895N (unconfirmed)
  • Ferodo V6985N (see above)
  • Mintex WKT394 (slightly shorter: OC 39⅜ ” , IC 36¾”)
  • Quinton Hazell DB2920N
  • Raybestos R6000
  • Goodyear 16 (18T401)
 Mintex WKT394  Fan belt MOWOG 13H1840   Original Mintex WKT394                                                     Later BMLC MOWOG fan belt 13H1840
  •  Gates recommends the 36° angle Gates 9400 XL belt with an outside length of 40⅜” or 1025 mm. Again the extra length is because of the different width definition of this belt type and the fact that this belt “sticks out” of the groove.
  • NAPA 25-9400 is related to the above however with a correct 17/32” width (13.5 mm) and a 40” outer length (1016 mm).
  • Reference is made of the Goodyear 17401 which is a 0.53″ (12.7 mm) x 40″ (1016 mm) belt; this is a “notched” belt but is correct for the later type of XK150s.
  • Modern 40° V-angle belts coded AVX13x1015 may fit depending on the adjustability of the generator.

5. Fan belt overview XK 120, 140 & 150

Survey fan belts XKs


6. Overview of fan belt data for other early Jaguars from 1936 to 1960

During the “research” done in order to retrieve the original fan belts and their dimensions, a lot of additional information was found on other earlier Jaguar cars, that may help other Jaguar enthusiasts in their attempt to find a proper fan belt for their particular car. This information can be found in the table underneath.


Lucas C45PVS “Special Equipment”

Lucas C45 generator overview as applied for Jaguar XK120, 140 and 150

1. Generators (dynamos) in the pre-XK era

Very early SS Jaguars had Lucas C45YV/1 dynamos, until about 1937 SS Jaguar started using Lucas C45PV-3 generators for the 2½ and later 3½ Litre versions. These dynamos were also available as “Special Equipment” version (in addition to the more common “Standard” version). This is why many illustrations and photos from about 1934 onwards, show Jaguar engines with the typical “Special Equipment” generators having a nickel-plated yoke, black strap over the inspection holes for the brushes and (of course) the “Special Equipment” badge.

These first pre-war C45PV/3 dynamos for the larger engines had type number L1/1 and Lucas part number 238.186. Note that pre-war Lucas part numbers consisted of 6 digits.

The Jaguar “Spare Parts Catalogue” of December 1947 states that Jaguar (SS) 100 and other 3½ Litre models from 1938 onwards used the Lucas C45PV-3 generator (with Jaguar part no. C1075) having a cast iron pulley with integral fan (Jaguar part no. C1076); the latter was continued over many Jaguar models until 1954. We may therefore assume that also Mk IV and Mk V models have used this type of generator (to be confirmed).

2. The Special Equipment version of the C45 generator series.

From 1948 onwards Jaguar choose the “Special Equipment” version of the C45PV-4 model range with model number C45PVS, followed by C45PVS-5 and C45PVS-6, for the XK 120, 140 and 150. This generator is part of the C45 range, but there are (major) differences within the total range and parts are not always interchangeable.

Lucas generator 22429 Example early nickel-plated yoke with black strap.

The Lucas coding for the C45PVS generator model is composed as follows: generator with Concentrically mounted armature with 4.5” diameter yoke; Voltage control, 2-Pole system with long type yoke; Ventilated; optional Special finish, followed by an indication of design update (-4 or -5 or -6).

It is unclear whether the “Special Equipment” version of the C45PV-3 generator was ever coded PVS-3. There are reasons to believe that the “S” was only added when the C45PV-4 dynamo was introduced in 1948. Lucas emphasizes the higher position of the “Special Equipment” version by stating in their brochures that these “have generally been applied to High Speed Sports and other special cars”. They further supported the use of “Special Equipment” versions by giving it a unique, generic type number C45PVS (instead of C45PVS-4). Only with the introduction of its improved successor in 1953 they felt the need to introduce the type number suffix: C45PVS-5.

From 1945 onwards four main groups of C45 generators can be distinguished whereby the first 2 groups have been mentioned here for reference only:

1. C45P-4 and P-5 series: this is a fully closed, non-ventilated version with a cutting-in speed of 900 to 1050 rpm and a maximum output of 13 Amps at 1350 rpm. Mostly applied for agricultural use and used in combination with Control Boxes RF97 or RB107.

2. C45PV-4 series: this is an open, ventilated version with a maximum output of 20 Amps at 1650 rpm. Applied for automotive use where a load is not exceeding 17 Amps and to be used in combination with Control Boxes RF95 or RB106.

3. C45PV-5 and PVS-5 series: is basically similar to the C45PV-4 but with the ventilation considerably improved by increasing the size and shapes of the apertures in the commutator and driving end-brackets for all suffix 5 versions. “S” versions have ball-bearings at both shaft ends. These generators have a maximum output of 20 Amps at 1650 rpm . Applied for automotive use where the continuous load does not exceed 17 Amps and to be used in combination with Control Boxes RF95, RB106 or RB310.

4. C45PVS-6 series: an improved version of model C45PVS-5) with a.o. a new armature, commutator end-bracket and brushes. Output was now 25 Amps; to be used in combination with Control Boxes RB310 (updated version 37297A with higher Amps setting).

3. Survey and timeline of C45 “Special Equipment” generator versions per XK type

Survey C45PVS generator versions.jpg

4. Lucas C45PVS models

This generation of Lucas generators has probably been introduced in 1947. Although the Lucas part number was 22429A from the beginning, the commercial Lucas type number was C45 ZV or C45 ZVH. This was a Special Equipment model, but with a different commutator end-bracket, here shown with a square housing for the roller bearing. Also note the different electrical connection with two plug type connectors instead of the later terminals. The examples shown below have date code 1 48 and 9 48 respectively. The type model changed to C45 PVS when a modified commutator end bracket was introduced (probably 1949) with part number 22429D.

  Lucas C45 2 VH 22549A 1948 Lucas 22429A had a separate square bearing housing and was never used on XK120

4.1. Lucas 22429D & E (Jaguar C2527/1)

Early XK 120s up to W5275 (1952) used Lucas generator model C45PVS, part number 22429D and 22429E. The same version was applied on early Mk 7’s up to engine # A8126. The C45PVS is a specially finished product with ball-bearings at both ends, a machined (non-passivated) nickel-plated yoke , a black painted band or strap for access to the brushes,  commutator end-bracket in natural aluminium and drive end-bracket in cast iron painted black.

The “Special Equipment” tag is made of steel and nickel-plated with black-enamel depressed fields. It is secured by two bright steel solid rivets with hemi-sphere head; later 22429F and H versions had gloss-black rivets.

Lucas C45 PVS type plate Later 22429F plate

This generator initially consisted of an armature part number 238806 with (metrical!) ball bearings at both ends. In the aluminium commutator end (C.E.) bracket (Lucas part 238845) a rubber sealed Hoffmann type 115 ball bearing was placed (dimensions Ø15 xØ35 x 11 and Lucas part 189307). This ball bearing is generally known as 6202. At the driving end a cast iron bracket (Lucas part 238796) is used with a rubber sealed Hoffmann type 117 ball bearing (dimensions Ø17 xØ40 x 12 and Lucas part 189308; also known as 6203).

image Lucas C45 PVS pulley
Early C45PVS integrated pulley and fan as one casting (C1076).

Note: Lucas 22429 generators (from D to H) used a cast iron pulley with integral fan (Jaguar part no. C1076). (Note: reproduction versions are made nowadays in cast aluminium). The later 22462B generators had a different pulley (Jaguar part number C2579), while the successor types Lucas part 22462D and E had a separate aluminium pulley and fabricated steel fan (Jaguar part number C7427 and C7428 respectively).

Lucas 22462B Comm end Dynamo CEEarly C.E. bracket without Lucas script                       Example of C.E. bracket for 22462/D with Lucas script

Note: Early C.E. brackets (both part number 238845 and 239265) apparently have been casted without any Lucas script. Later brackets from generator part number 22462/D onwards have the word “Lucas” and “Made in England” on the outside. The inside casting numbers (L134), however, are identical for both versions.

Note: The commutator end-bracket  for all “S” versions can be easily distinguished by having a larger recess for the ball bearing with an outer diameter of 35 mm; “non S” versions have a (smaller) bronze bush bearing with an outer diameter of 19,2 mm (Lucas part 238567 or 293263).

image Different C.E. bracket for Special Equipment version (top)

4.2. Lucas 22429F & H (Jaguar C2527/1)

XK 120s manufactured in 1951 and till mid 1952 used Lucas dynamo model C45PVS with part number 22429F and H. The same version was applied on Mk 7s of that period. Some modifications were made compared to the earlier part 22429E.

Lucas 22429F C45 PVS Lucas 22429F CE Note: generator C45 PVS was not painted black             Commutator End of Lucas 22429F

A new armature (239190) with ball bearings at both ends was introduced; this armature remained the same for the entire later production, including part number 22462 versions and changed only with the introduction of the C45PVS-6 model in May 1959.

Type plate Lucas 22429F Lucas 22429F pulley Type plate Lucas 22429F (December 1950)                                Pulley and fan combined in one casting

A new aluminium commutator end-bracket (Lucas part 239265) was introduced with a different bearing type: a fully enclosed Hoffmann type 115P bearing was now used (dimensions Ø15 xØ35 x 11 and Lucas part number 189237). At the driving end nothing changed with bracket part 238796 and bearing part 189308. All other parts remained the same.

The photo below shows the same 22429 generator however with a K suffix as produced in 1957. This may have been a later service-part production run for the aforementioned types.

 Lucas 22429K with built date 10 57

5. Lucas C45PVS-5 models

5.1. Lucas 22462A & B (Jaguar C5433)

In June 1952 an improved generator type was introduced for the XK 120 from engine number W5276 onwards. This version was initially coded Lucas 22462A and later with suffix B (Jaguar part number C5433). This is the new C45PVS-5 model which is largely identical to the preceding model apart from a new driving end-bracket (now part number 239012) which allows for better cooling of the generator. The bearing for this end-bracket, however, remained unchanged (Lucas part 189308). Apparently these “Special Equipment” versions were no longer nickel-plated and the yoke was (at least in case of the 22462B: see photo below) painted grey, as was the strap giving access to the brushes. At some moment (introduction of the 22462D version?) the yoke was painted in a  black colour and remained black for all following versions of the C45PVS/5 model.

Some sources indicate that the 22462B was also applied on the early XK140. The Lucas “Advanced Information” data sheet for 1955 Jaguar Cars (dated February 1955) still mentions the 22462B as correct for the XK 140 (in fact for all 1955 Jaguar models). There is however no evidence that these (grey painted) generators have ever been used on XK 140s.

image image

“Special Equipment” badge on 22462B generator painted grey (Lucas “poly-chromatic” grey?)

5.2. Lucas 22462D & E (Jaguar C5433)

With the introduction of the XK140 in 1954, the C45PVS-5 model was continued under part number 22462D, then later with suffix E. The differences between early 22462B and later versions with suffix D and E appear to relate to modifications in the two long fixing bolts which changed from part number 238521 to 272752 (see photo below right). The Jaguar code C5433 did not change although this modified generator was now painted black (both yoke and cover band) instead of grey.

image image

Note: some sources mention that the E suffix generators don’t have a strap. This statement seems to be incorrect as there exist too many 22462E generators with that strap and the opening beneath (see photo below).

image image

Lucas 22462E with opening for brushes

Part number 22462E was also applied for the XK 150 until May 1959 (up to engine V 1598) when a new generator model C45PVS-6 with part number 22496 B was introduced.

Lucas generator 22462E 1958

Note: although the specification of the generator remained unchanged, the oval brass “Special Equipment” badge was never used on the generators of the XK 140 nor XK 150.

6. Lucas C45PVS-6 models

6.1. Lucas 22496B to D (Jaguar C15255)

The model C45PVS-6 is an improved version of the 22462 (which was model C45PVS-5). Most parts remained the same, apart from a new armature (now part number 239511), a new commutator end-bracket (now 54210072) and brushes with their springs (54210090 and 54210091 respectively). Output was now 25 Amps. The C45PVS-6 was used on the later XK 150’s  and on the 3.4 and 3.8 Mk II saloons in the 22496D version (not USA & Canada for which markets the C48 model was used).

Lucas C45PVS 6 22496D Lucas C45PVS 6 22496D CE   Lucas C45PVS6 22496D (Courtesy Gary Seraphinoff)

7. Additional Service information

7.1. Old and new brush types

As mentioned above, the C45 PVS-6 used a new brush type (Lucas part 54210090) about ¼” thick whereas the brushes for the older versions (part 238240) are 5/16”. They are not interchangeable. The width of the brush is 1” and the height ¾”. A similar brush set (Lucas part 238061) is used on the older C45 types and has identical dimensions as per 238240. The length of the electrical connection wire, however, is only 58 mm (instead of 63 mm for the 238240) but still this older type might fit pre-C45PVS/6 generators .

image  image

Lucas brush set 238240                   Lucas brush set 54210090

7.2. Sundry Parts Set Lucas 239024

For a total overhaul of the C45 generator, Lucas provided a “sundry parts set” containing all the smaller parts required. This kit (Lucas part number 239024) was used for the complete “Special Equipment” range covering 22429, 22462 and 22496 series generators. Occasionally these kits are offered (e.g. on Ebay), but as an alternative the description below provides input about what is required for a total overhaul.

The sundry parts set contains the following items:

  • CSK screws (2) holding the field coils in the yoke
  • Long rivets (3) for mounting the bearing plate over a new Drive End bearing
  • Short rivets (4) securing the brush holders to the Commutator end plate.
  • Small rivets for positioning the endplates to the yoke
  • Woodruff keys (2); see special chapter below
  • Brass nuts 0BA (or M6) and washers for the D-terminal post (2 of each)
  • Steel nuts 2BA and washers for the F-terminal post (2 of each)
  • Screws 4BA and lock washers (2 of each) for connecting the brush wires
  • Felt washers (Ø35 and Ø40) for the (original “open”) bearings (see also chapter 7.3)
image Content of Lucas Sundry Parts Set 239024

7.3. Original bearings:

The original bearings for Lucas C45PVS generators were supplied by Hoffmann, Made in England.

  • Bearing 189237    Hoffmann 115P    Fully enclosed
  • Bearing 189307    Hoffmann 115      Rubber sealed
  • Bearing 189308    Hoffmann 117      Rubber sealed

Note: the “Lucas 400-e catalogue describes Bearing 189237 as Ø17 xØ40 x 12, but this is incorrect and should read Ø15 xØ35 x 11 (given the correct Hoffmann’s code 115P).

image Period Original Equipment bearings by Hoffmann, England
 image Bearing in end plate. No. 1 is bearing and no. 2 is felt ring.

7.4. Woodruff key:

The key used by Lucas for the pulley (and fan) is Woodruff key No 50 according BS46 with dimension 1/8 x 5/8″.


7.5. Shaft nut for pulley

Lucas part number for this special Nut is 160820 and fits only 17 mm shaft generators. It is a special thread often referred to as .668-20 meaning 0.668”(16.97 mm) and 20 TPI (1.27 mm pitch). Most likely, originally this was a M17 x 1.25 mm thread, but converted to “Imperial”.

image Thrust spring Lucas 238954

7.6. Thrust spring Commutator End

To keep the lateral position of the armature fixed within the generator, Lucas used a (rather heavy) coil spring at the Commutator end bearing. This spring pushes the Ø 35 mm bearing in the direction of the Drive end. It is listed as Lucas part number 238954: very hard (if not impossible) to get, so an old one or a reproduced spring is required in case the old one can no longer be applied. Please note that the intended “lateral movement” of the bearing implies a “finger-press” fit of the bearing in the commutator end plate. If a hand or machine-press is required to install the bearing, the fit will be too tight and movement of the bearing will become impossible.

Note: Although this Thrust Spring is absolutely indispensable and unique to all “Special Equipment” versions (and is referred to in most illustrations in handbooks and manuals), it is not listed as part number in the “Lucas 400-E cataloguefor the versions C45PVS and C45PVS-5, nor in the Jaguar Service Parts lists. It was listed for the first time for the C45PVS-6 models as Lucas part number 238954.

7.7. Field coils

All C45PVS, C45PVS-5 and C45PVS-6 use the same Field coil with Lucas part no. 238820 (Jaguar code 2789). Although this Field Coil has also been used for other C45PV-5 generators of the “non-S” type, they are very difficult to find (if at all). The nominal resistance for the set of coils is 6 Ohm, although a value of 5.5 Ohm (or roughly a minus 10% tolerance) doesn’t seem to affect the generator output (as experience learned). As the output current of the generator might increase over the years the use of the RB106 or RB310 Control Box (with current control) is required.

image Field coils 238820 for all XK generators

6.8 Terminals

Two brass terminal connections are used for connecting the generator. The F-terminal is the smaller one suited for eyelets with a 3/16”(4.8 mm) inner diameter and is fixed to the yoke by a rivet . The electrical wiring connection is secured by two 2BA nuts, one of them acting as a locking devise. Below is a photo of a replacement F-terminal (Lucas part number 227625) as can sometimes still be found.


Lucas fuse (ratings) in XK 140

The original “torpedo” shaped Lucas fuse type was applied in the two fuse blocks of the XK 140 . This story deals with the difference between original Lucas type fuse with conical ends and the later type with straight ends.

In addition it makes an inventory of the actual maximum power consumption per circuit and the Jaguar prescribed fuse rating, which is not always consistent. Furthermore, with the arrival of the XK 150, Jaguar corrected a number of fuse ratings although the maximum power consumption of most of the circuits did not change.

Original Lucas type fuses

Lucas type fuses are used throughout the 40’s, 50’s and 60’s in British automobiles. The physical length of the Lucas type of fuse was originally 1¼ inch with conical ends and  changed to 1 inch for the later fuse types with straight ends. The change-over from conical to straight ends took place towards the end of the 50’s. The former conical fuses kept their Lucas part number although they now had straight ends. Additional fuse ratings were introduced, receiving new part numbers (188 230 and higher).

The above introduction implies that all XK’s had the original type of Lucas fuses with conical ends installed when they left the factory.

Fuse ratings

Lucas fuses have three ratings:

  • continuous current they are designed to carry
  • instantaneous current at which they will fuse
  • continuous current at which they will also fuse.

The figure found on Lucas fuses is the continuous fusing current which is twice the continuous ampere rating that the system should be using; this can be a source of confusion when replacing Lucas fuses with non-Lucas fuses. Lucas type fuses use a specific colour code for each rated current (see table below using the description of the fuse when the part number was introduced).

Color coding scheme 1958
Color Lucas code Type end Cont. Amp Instant. Amp Cont. Amp (50%)

Red on Yellow

188 206





Green on Black

188 211





Light Brown

188 220






188 216






188 218





Purple on Yellow

188 219





Yellow on Red

188 222






188 230






188 232





Nut Brown

188 234





Red on Green

188 235





Red on Brown

188 236






Early type Lucas 188.216 with conical ends and 1¼“ length


Later type Lucas with straight end and 1” length


Lucas original Green boxes for conical 1¼ “ fuses 188 216


Later Red boxes for 1” straight end 188 219 fuses of 50A


Later Lucas 188 219 fuses of 50A (about 1962)

Jaguar prescribed fuse ratings for the XK 140 SE

The table below gives an overview of the maximum load per fused circuit and the Jaguar prescribed fuse rating.


Below you’ll find the circuit division for the XK 150. Please notice that for XK 140’s  the circuit with Interior Lights and Cigar Lighter was fused with a 35 Amp fuse placed at the 4th position of SF 4. For XK 150’s this circuit moved to position A2 of SF6 with a 50 Amp rating. Position 4 of the SF4 fuse block of the XK 150 was now used for fusing the Fog Lamps, which had no fuse at all on the XK 140 (although position A2 of SF6 was available). Also notice that the fuse for the  Head Lamps circuit increased from 35W to 50W with the introduction of the XK 150. Even more remarkable: position number 2 of SF4 (side lamps, tail lamps, boot lamp and number plate lamp)  increased from 15 Amps to 50 Amps!


Interior lights XK 140 FHC (BD5367 & 68)

Interior lights XK 140 FHC (BD5367 & BD5368)

The Jaguar parts list shows the following components:


The metal Lamp Housing is referred to as Recess Assembly for the XK 120 or Pocket Assembly for the XK 140 coded BD 5334 and BD5335. Also coded as BF1088/L and BF1088/R

clip_image004 clip_image006

These items are used in the following cars:

  • XK120 FHC
  • XK140 FHC
  • MK1
  • MK7/8/9

Please note that the bottom rim of the metal Lamp Housing of the saloon models is sometimes wider than the one of the XK models, but these can be cut to size easily.

Interior Lamp FHC BD5367 (LH) & BD5368 (RH)

The complete assembly of the interior light consists of the following parts:


Early Interior lights had a single ½” large hole for the NEG lamp contact, whereas the POS (Earth) lamp contact had a smaller hole (3/16”) and this contact was connected to the metal reflector. Later Interior lights had two ½” large holes for both lamp contacts, meaning both POS and NEG earth systems could be used.

clip_image020 Early and later type Reflector.

Assembly comprising Casing, Pocket and Interior Lamp